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Table 2 Regression coefficients between milk and dairy product consumption per capita and the ASIR of NPC in males and in females in 48 countries/regions, 1998–2002

From: Milk consumption in relation to incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 48 countries/regions

   Without adjustment Adjusting for HDI
  Sex Standardized coefficient (sβa) Adjusted standardized coefficient (asβb)
MEBC (N = 48) Males −0.499*** −0.552**
Females −0.500*** −0.534**
MWF (N = 46) Males −0.436** −0.344*
Females −0.438** −0.344*
CHF (N = 43) Males −0.406** −0.249
Females −0.367* −0.208
BGF (N = 43) Males −0.354* −0.251
Females −0.340* −0.246
CRF (N = 30) Males −0.497** −0.325
Females −0.491** −0.311
  1. ASIR age standardized incidence rate, NPC nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  2. MEBC milk excluding butter, MWF milk (whole), CHF cheese, BGF butter & ghee, CRF fresh cream
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 (2-tailed)
  4. a Crude
  5. b Adjusted for Human Development Index