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Table 1 Spearman correlation coefficients in cross-sectional analysis and time-lagged analysis between the ASIR of NPC and milk and dairy consumption in 48 countries/regions, 1968–2002

From: Milk consumption in relation to incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 48 countries/regions

   Cross sectional Time-lagged (consumption period)
1998–2002 1993–1997 (5-year lag) 1988–1992 (10-) 1983–1987 (15-) 1978–1982 (20-) 1973–1977 (25-) 1968–1972 (30-)
Milk excluding butter (MEBC) (N = 48) Males −0.55*** −0.54*** −0.53*** −0.53*** −0.54*** −0.54*** −0.56***
Females −0.57*** −0.55*** −0.54*** −0.55*** −0.55*** −0.55*** −0.56***
Milk, whole (MWF) (N = 46) Males −0.35* −0.44** −0.45** −0.46** −0.45** −0.47** −0.52***
Females −0.29* −0.40** −0.43** −0.46** −0.45** −0.47** −0.51***
Cheese (CHF) (N = 43) Males −0.40** −0.40** −0.36* −0.33* −0.34* −0.36* −0.37*
Females −0.42** −0.40** −0.37* −0.31* −0.32* −0.30* −0.29
Butter & Ghee (BGF) (N = 43) Males −0.36* −0.29 −0.32* −0.30* −0.33* −0.35* −0.40**
Females −0.44** −0.36* −0.38* −0.38* −0.39* −0.40** −0.43**
Fresh Cream (CRF) (N = 30) Males −0.53** −0.65*** −0.71*** −0.68*** −0.68*** −0.65*** −0.65***
Females −0.63*** −0.71*** −0.75*** −0.72*** −0.67*** −0.62*** −0.58***
  1. ASIR age standardized incidence rate, NPC nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001 (2-tailed)