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Table 3 Individual and joint effects of smoking and drinking on NPC adjusted for age, sex, education, cohort & occupational status

From: Smoking and nasopharyngeal carcinoma mortality: a cohort study of 101,823 adults in Guangzhou, China

Category Total person-years of participants Mortality rate of NPC per 10,000 person-years (95 % CI) No of deaths Model 2 HR (95 % CI)
Smoking and drinking status
 Never smoker and never drinker 390,148 0.21 (0.10–0.41) 8 1.00
 Never smoker and daily drinker 6265 1.60 (0.22–11.33) 1 4.19 (0.47–37.22)
 Daily smoker and never drinker 240,998 0.50 (0.28–0.88) 12 2.95 (1.01–8.68)*
 Daily smoker and daily drinker 56,597 1.06 (0.48–2.36) 6 3.38 (0.95–11.97)
Smoking amount and drinking status (cigarettes/day)a
 Never smoker and never drinker 390,148 0.21 (0.10–0.41) 8 1.00
 Never smoker and daily drinker 6265 1.60 (0.22–11.33) 1 4.49 (0.51–39.90)
 Level 1 smoking amount and never drinker 125,001 0.32 (0.12–0.85) 4 2.15 (0.56–8.18)
 Level 1 smoking amount and daily drinker 21,113 / 0 /
 Level 2 smoking amount and never drinker 115,997 0.53 (0.28–1.02) 8 3.55 (1.12–11.31)*
 Level 2 smoking amount and daily drinker 35,485 1.28 (0.58–2.86) 6 4.86 (1.34–17.61)*
Smoking duration and drinking status (years)b
 Never smoker and never drinker 390,148 0.21 (0.10–0.41) 8 1.00
 Never smoker and daily drinker 6265 1.60 (0.22–11.33) 1 4.21 (0.47–37.41)
 Level 1 smoking duration and never drinker 71,958 0.42 (0.13–1.29) 3 3.52 (0.81–15.34)
 Level 1 smoking duration and daily drinker 9877 / 0 /
 Level 2 smoking duration and never drinker 169,040 0.53 (0.28–1.02) 9 2.67 (0.87–8.23)
 Level 2 smoking duration and daily drinker 46,720 1.28 (0.58–2.86) 6 3.61 (1.01–12.93)*
Smoking cumulative consumption and drinking status (pack-years)c
 Never smoker and never drinker 390,148 0.21 (0.10–0.41) 8 1.00
 Never smoker and daily drinker 6265 1.60 (0.22–11.33) 1 4.65 (0.52–41.41)
 Level 1 smoking cumulative consumption and never drinker 143,711 0.28 (0.10–0.74) 4 2.10 (0.55–8.11)
 Level 1 smoking cumulative consumption and daily drinker 22,306 / 0 /
 Level 2 smoking cumulative consumption and never drinker 97,286 0.82 (0.41–1.64) 8 3.69 (1.15–11.82)*
 Level 2 smoking cumulative consumption and daily drinker 34,291 1.75 (0.79–3.89) 6 4.77 (1.30–17.50)*
  1. Model 2 – adjusted for age, sex, education, cohort & occupational status with smoking and alcohol interaction terms
  2. *p < 0.05
  3. aLevel 1: smoked 1–14 cigarettes per day, Level 2: smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day
  4. bLevel 1: 1–9 years of smoking duration, Level 2: more than 10 years of smoking duration
  5. cLevel 1: less than 10 pack-years of smoking cumulative consumption, Level 2: more than 10 pack-years of smoking cumulative consumption