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Table 1 Clinicopathologic features and TGF-β expression

From: Co-expression of parathyroid hormone related protein and TGF-beta in breast cancer predicts poor survival outcome

  TGF-β positive No. (%) TGF-β negative No. (%) χ2 P value
Age     
 ≤55 156 (56.9 %) 111 (49.8 %) 2.534 0.111
 >55 118 (43.1 %) 112 (50.2 %)   
Tumor size     
 ≤2 cm 137 (50.0 %) 141 (63.2 %) 8.729 0.003
 >2 cm 137 (50.0 %) 82 (36.8 %)   
Skin involvementa     
 No 229 (83.6 %) 190 (85.2 %) 0.245 0.620
 Yes 45 (16.4 %) 33 (14.8 %)   
LN metastasis     
 No 154 (57.5 %) 148 (67.9 %) 5.556 0.018
 Yes 114 (42.5 %) 70 (32.1 %)   
 Unknown 6 5   
Histologic grade     
 ≤II 182 (67.7 %) 169 (78.2 %) 6.710 0.01
 >II 87 (32.3 %) 47 (21.8 %)   
 Unknown 5 7   
Clinical stage     
 I 91 (33.2 %) 104 (46.6 %) 9.329 0.009
 II 128 (46.7 %) 82 (36.8 %)   
 III 55 (20.1 %) 37 (16.6 %)   
ER     
 (−) 75 (28.7 %) 59 (27.6 %) 0.079 0.779
 (+) 186 (71.3 %) 155 (72.4 %)   
 Unknown 13 9   
HER-2     
 (−) 94 (38.7 %) 83 (41.7 %) 0.417 0.518
 (+) 149 (61.3 %) 116 (58.3 %)   
 Unknown 31 24   
Tumor type     
 IDCb 234 (85.4 %) 189 (84.8 %) 0.041 0.840
 Non-IDCc 40 (14.6 %) 34 (15.2 %)   
  1. askin involvement: edema, redness, nodularity, or ulceration
  2. bIDC, invasive ductal carcinoma
  3. cNon-IDC: invasive lobular carcinoma, mucinous or colloid carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma