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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (n = 15)

From: Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, significantly improved biochemical recurrence in bone metastatic prostate cancer: a randomized controlled phase II a trial

   ADT (n = 5) TOPADT (n = 5) P value (vs. ADT) RAPADT (n = 5) P value (vs. ADT)
Age (median, range)   76 (74–85) 73 (63–81) 0.59 72 (67–75) 0.29
PSA (ng/mL) (median, range)   223 (30.6–8428) 264 (30–818) 1 126 (30.8–3600) 0.83
Gleason score 7 1 0 0.72 2 0.57
8 2 2 1
9 1 2 2
10 1 1 0
Clinical T stage 2c 2 4 0.19 2 0.55
3a 3 1 2
3b 0 0 0
4 0 0 1
Clinical N stage 0 2 4 0.19 1 1
1 3 1 4  
Clinical M stage 1b 5 4 1 5 1
1c 0 1: lung   0  
Extent of disease 1 4 3 0.49 4 1
2 0 2 1
3 1 0 0
J-CAPRA score (median, range)   9 (8–10) 8 (7–9) 0.37 9 (6–11) 0.92
Labeling index (median, range)
AR   78.5 (54.8–100) 87.1 (30–100) 1 100 (37.5–100) 0.68
ERα   27.9 (0–46.5) 19.7 (0–37.4) 0.34 20.6 (13.4–35.4) 0.54
ERβ   20.3 (2.4–44.9) 11.9 (7.4–91.4) 0.75 15.2 (7–26.4) 0.9
  1. ADT androgen deprivation therapy including surgical or medical castration plus bicalutamide, TOPADT toremifene plus ADT, RAPADT raloxifene plus ADT, J-CAPRA score Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) score (ranging from 0 to 12) was calculated on the basis of PSA, Gleason score and clinical stage [15]. Labeling index was determined by counting the percentage of cells with positive immunoreactivity in 1000 cells [18], AR androgen receptor, ER estrogen receptor