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Table 3 Age-adjusted geometric mean of relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in relation to participant characteristics

From: Leukocyte telomere length and its association with mammographic density and proliferative diagnosis among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy

  All women (N = 195) Proliferative diagnosis1 (N = 141) Non-proliferative diagnosis2 (N = 54) P-heterogeneity¥
Characteristics Mean LTL§ (95 % CI) § Mean LTL§ (95 % CI) § Mean LTL§ (95 % CI) §  
Age (years)        0.817
  < 45 1.27 (1.05, 1.55) 1.47 (1.13, 1.91) 1.07 (0.80, 1.42)  
 45–49 1.35 (1.14, 1.60) 1.47 (1.20, 1.80) 1.10 (0.81, 1.50)  
 50–54 1.39 (1.17, 1.64) 1.46 (1.21, 1.77) 1.16 (0.82, 1.64)  
  ≥ 55 1.23 (1.04, 1.45) 1.31 (1.09, 1.58) 0.94 (0.65, 1.37)  
 P-trend 0.774 0.423 0.745  
Body mass index (Kg/m2)        0.194
  < 25.0 1.24 (1.10, 1.39) 1.35 (1.18, 1.55) 0.93 (0.73, 1.17)  
 25.0–29.9 1.29 (1.09, 1.52) 1.44 (1.17, 1.78) 1.09 (0.83, 1.42)  
  ≥ 30 1.56 (1.29, 1.90) 1.57 (1.26, 1.96) 1.56 (1.05, 2.31)  
 P-trend 0.058 0.248 0.030  
Age at menarche (years)        0.743
  ≤ 12 1.26 (1.09, 1.45) 1.33 (1.13, 1.57) 1.01 (0.74, 1.37)  
 13 1.36 (1.17, 1.58) 1.53 (1.28, 1.83) 1.08 (0.83, 1.41)  
  ≥ 14 1.33 (1.11, 1.58) 1.43 (1.17, 1.75) 1.08 (0.76, 1.53)  
 P-trend 0.613 0.530 0.787  
Parity        0.739
 Parous 1.30 (1.17, 1.43) 1.39 (1.24, 1.55) 1.07 (0.88, 1.30)  
 Nulliparous 1.35 (1.14, 1.61) 1.53 (1.23, 1.89) 1.08 (0.81, 1.44)  
Age at first birth (years)*        0.744
  < 30 1.21 (1.08, 1.37) 1.30 (1.13, 1.50) 1.00 (0.79, 1.26)  
  ≥ 30 1.51 (1.24, 1.83) 1.66 (1.31, 2.10) 1.28 (0.90, 1.81)  
 P-trend 0.066 0.084 0.246  
Menopausal status        0.361
 Premenopausal 1.37 (1.19, 1.57) 1.40 (1.18, 1.66) 1.22 (0.98, 1.51)  
 Postmenopausal 1.21 (0.98, 1.50) 1.45 (1.15, 1.82) 0.74 (0.47, 1.17)  
Age at menopause (years)        0.221
  < 45 1.37 (1.03, 1.84) 1.79 (1.30, 2.46) 0.67 (0.39, 1.17)  
 45–49 1.19 (0.94, 1.52) 1.28 (0.99, 1.66) 1.18 (0.68, 2.05)  
  ≥ 50 1.24 (1.04, 1.48) 1.31 (1.09, 1.58) 0.80 (0.52, 1.22)  
 P-trend 0.655 0.166 0.654  
Menopausal hormone therapy use        0.461
 Never 1.13 (0.95, 1.35) 1.26 (1.02, 1.57) 0.89 (0.60, 1.34)  
 Ever 1.49 (1.22, 1.80) 1.50 (1.23, 1.84) 1.10 (0.60, 2.01)  
First degree family history of breast cancer        0.883
 No 1.25 (1.13, 1.38) 1.35 (1.20, 1.51) 1.03 (0.85, 1.25)  
 Yes 1.50 (1.27, 1.78) 1.64 (1.34, 2.00) 1.19 (0.87, 1.61)  
  1. 1Diagnosis of hyperplasia, in-situ cancer or invasive cancer
  2. 2Diagnosis of benign or other discrete non-proliferative diagnosis
  3. §Based on linear regression with the log-transformed of the relative telomere length as outcome. Results are back-transformed. All characteristics were adjusted for age (continuous) and BMI (continuous), except age and BMI respectively
  4. ¥P-value based on a Wald test in the regression model corresponding to an interaction term of the proliferative disease variable times the corresponding variable (coded in continuous form)
  5. *Restricted to parous women
  6. Restricted to post-menopausal women
  7. The bolded numbers indicate statistical significance results at the 5 % level