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Table 1 Characteristics of women referred to an image-guided breast biopsy, by biopsy diagnosis

From: Leukocyte telomere length and its association with mammographic density and proliferative diagnosis among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy

Characteristics All women (N = 195) Women with proliferative diagnosis1 (N = 141) Women with non-proliferative diagnosis2 (N = 54) P-value§
Age (years), mean (SD) 50.6 (6.4) 51.4 (6.4) 48.5 (6.2) 0.005
Age (years), n (%)     0.040
  < 45 38 (19.5) 21 (14.9) 17 (31.5)  
 45–49 51 (26.2) 36 (25.5) 15 (27.8)  
 50–54 53 (27.2) 41 (29.1) 12 (22.2)  
  ≥ 55 53 (27.2) 43 (30.5) 10 (18.5)  
Race/Ethnicity, n (%)     1.00
 White, non-Hispanic 184 (94.4) * *  
 Non-White 11 (5.6) * *  
Education, n (%)     0.970
 High school or less 29 (14.9) 21 (14.9) 8 (14.8)  
 Some college 34 (17.4) 24 (17.0) 10 (18.5)  
 College graduate or more 132 (67.7) 96 (68.1) 36 (66.7)  
Age at menarche (years), n (%)     0.476
  ≤ 12 75 (39.1) 57 (40.7) 18 (34.6)  
 13 68 (35.4) 46 (32.9) 22 (42.3)  
  ≥ 14 49 (25.5) 37 (26.4) 12 (23.1)  
Parity, n (%)     0.280
 Nulliparous 49 (25.1) 32 (22.7) 17 (31.5)  
 Parous 146 (74.9) 109 (77.3) 37 (68.5)  
Age at first birth (years), n (%)     0.639
  < 30 105 (71.9) 80 (73.4) 25 (67.6)  
  ≥ 30 41 (28.1) 29 (26.6) 12 (32.4)  
Menopausal status, n (%)     0.103
 Premenopausal 125 (64.1) 85 (60.3) 40 (74.1)  
 Postmenopausal 70 (35.9) 56 (39.7) 14 (25.9)  
Age at menopause (years), n (%)     0.873
  < 45 12 (19.7) 9 (18.8) 3 (23.1)  
 45–49 17 (27.9) 13 (27.1) 4 (30.8)  
  ≥ 50 32 (52.5) 26 (54.2) 6 (46.2)  
Menopausal hormone therapy use, n (%)     0.039
 Never 37 (52.9) 26 (46.4) 11 (78.6)  
 Ever 33 (47.1) 30 (53.6) 3 (21.4)  
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 25.9 (5.4) 25.8 (5.5) 25.9 (5.2) 0.649
Body mass index (kg/m2), n (%)     0.158
  < 25.0 103 (52.8) 78 (55.3) 25 (46.3)  
 25.0–29.9 53 (27.2) 33 (23.4) 20 (37.0)  
  ≥ 30 39 (20.0) 30 (21.3) 9 (16.7)  
First degree family history of breast cancer, n (%)     0.891
 No 144 (73.8) 105 (74.5) 39 (72.2)  
 Yes 51 (26.2) 36 (25.5) 15 (27.8)  
Primary pathologic diagnosis, n (%)     --
 Benign 42 (21.5) -- 42 (77.8)  
 Other discrete non-proliferative diagnosis 12 (6.2) -- 12 (22.2)  
 Hyperplasia 110 (56.4) 110 (78.0) --  
 In-situ carcinoma 22 (11.3) 22 (15.6) --  
 Invasive carcinoma 9 (4.6) 9 (6.4) --  
Mammographic density measure¥, mean (SD)     
 % density (volume) 41.4 (21.5) 41.6 (20.9) 41.1 (23.0) 0.692
 Dense volume (cm3) 193.5 (93.8) 195.1 (99.7) 189.2 (76.7) 0.992
 Total breast volume (cm3) 603.8 (389.8) 607.8 (407.0) 593.3 (344.1) 0.776
 % density (area) 30.6 (21.0) 30.0 (20.9) 32.1 (21.5) 0.539
 Dense area (cm2) 35.9 (26.7) 35.3 (26.0) 37.6 (28.8) 0.886
 Total breast area (cm2) 141.2 (69.3) 143.9 (72.7) 134.2 (59.3) 0.655
Relative leukocyte telomere length, mean (SD)     
 Overall 1.5 (0.8) 1.6 (0.9) 1.2 (0.6) 0.002
 Benign 1.2 (0.5) -- 1.2 (0.5)  
 Other discrete non-proliferative diagnosis 1.3 (1.0) -- 1.3 (1.0)  
 Hyperplasia 1.6 (0.8) 1.6 (0.8) --  
 In-situ carcinoma 1.8 (1.2) 1.8 (1.2) --  
 Invasive carcinoma 1.4 (0.7) 1.4 (0.7) --  
  1. SD Standard deviation
  2. *For race, categories contained cell counts less than 5; data are not presented in order to maintain participant confidentiality
  3. 1Diagnosis of hyperplasia, in-situ or invasive carcinomas
  4. 2Diagnosis of benign or other discrete non-proliferative diagnosis
  5. §P-value comparing proliferative and non-proliferative disease. P-value based on Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and a χ2 test for categorical variables; for cells with values ≤5, we used the Fisher’s exact test
  6. Restricted to parous women
  7. Restricted to post-menopausal women
  8. ¥MD measures in breast contralateral to the primary pathologic diagnosis
  9. The bolded numbers indicate statistical significance results at the 5 % level