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Table 1 Odds ratios (OR), population attributable risks (PAR) and confidence intervals (95 % CI) for oral cavity cancer associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and their joint effect, overall and by subsite, gender and age. ICARE study

From: Population attributable risks of oral cavity cancer to behavioral and medical risk factors in France: results of a large population-based case–control study, the ICARE study

  Cases Controls OR (95 % CI)a PAR (95 % CI)a
(N = 689) (N = 3481)
Oral cavity overall
 None consumption 37 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 14 297 1.1 (0.4–2.6) 0.3 % (−3.9–3.9)
 Tobacco alone 135 1189 3.2 (1.9–5.3) 12.7 % (6.9–18.0)
 Tobacco and alcohol 486 1040 17.3 (10.6–28.3) 69.9 % (64.4–74.7)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 5.2 (1.9–13.8) 82.9 % (73.8–88.5)
By subsite
Base of tongue
 None consumption 5 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 5 297 0.8 (0.1–7.3) -**
 Tobacco alone 28 1189 3.3 (1.1–9.6) 14.5 % (0.6–26.5)
 Tobacco and alcohol 90 1040 13.1 (4.6–37.3) 65.4 % (49.1–76.5)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 4.8 (0.5–46.1) 79.6 % (50.6–91.6)
Mobile tongue
 None consumption 16 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 3 297 0.6 (0.1–4.7) -**
 Tobacco alone 40 1189 3.1 (1.3–7.3) 16.5 % (3.5–27.7)
 Tobacco and alcohol 100 1040 12.0 (5.1–28.5) 60.1 % (46.1–70.5)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 6.9 (0.8–60.5) 75.7 % (51.3–87.9)
Gum
 None consumption 5 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 2 297 0.8 (0.1–8.0) -**
 Tobacco alone 12 1189 1.5 (0.4–5.4) 11.1 % (−30.1–39.2)
 Tobacco and alcohol 18 1040 2.6 (0.7–9.6) 26.2 % (−13.9–52.2)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 2.0 (0.2–23.4) 36.4 % (−62.3–75.0)
Floor of the mouth
 None consumption 2 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 2 297 2.4 (0.2–27.7) 0.5 % (−5.8–6.4)
 Tobacco alone 33 1189 11.1 (2.5–48.7) 15.5 % (6.7–23.6)
 Tobacco and alcohol 146 1040 88.1 (20.3–381.8) 79.6 % (70.8–85.7)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 3.3 (0.3–38.3) 95.6 % (82.3–98.9)
Soft palate
 None consumption 4 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 0 297 not estimated  
 Tobacco alone 11 1189 2.0 (0.5–8.2) 7.2 % (−9.4–21.3)
 Tobacco and alcohol 57 1040 17.5 (4.7–65.3) 75.1 % (55.1–86.1)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ not estimated 82.3 % (44.9–94.3)
Other parts of the mouth
 None consumption 5 926 reference  
 Alcohol alone 2 297 4.4 (0.6–34.1) 3.4 % (−6.6–12.5)
 Tobacco alone 10 1189 2.2 (0.4–12.8) 4.9 % (−8.5–16.6)
 Tobacco and alcohol 61 1040 27.7 (5.7–135.1) 79.3 % (59.9–89.2)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 2.8 (0.3–26.5) 87.6 % (50.1–96.9)
By gender
Male
 None consumption 11 482 reference  
 Alcohol alone 9 247 0.7 (0.2–2.3) –**
 Tobacco alone 94 967 2.7 (1.3–5.4) 9.8 % (3.0–16.1)
 Tobacco and alcohol 431 1008 13.2 (6.8–25.5) 74.0 % (66.5–79.9)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 7.2 (2.1–24.8) 83.3 % (68.8–91.1)
Female
 None consumption 26 444 reference  
 Alcohol alone 5 50 1.4 (0.3–7.1) 0.9 % (−10.6–11.1)
 Tobacco alone 41 222 3.6 (1.7–7.8) 22.4 % (6.8–35.5)
 Tobacco and alcohol 55 32 41.9 (17.8–98.7) 45.4 % (32.7–55.6)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 8.0 (1.4–46.5) 68.7 % (49.4–80.6)
By age
< 45 years
 None consumption 5 124 reference  
 Alcohol alone 0 24 not estimated  
 Tobacco alone 10 207 1.6 (0.3–8.8) 8.0 % (−29.8–34.8)
 Tobacco and alcohol 33 62 31.5 (4.4–123.1) 67.7 % (41.5–82.1)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ not estimated 75.7 % (20.6–93.9)
45–60 years
 None consumption 15 300 reference  
 Alcohol alone 3 97 0.4 (0.1–3.3) -**
 Tobacco alone 66 513 2.9 (1.4–6.0) 10.9 % (3.5–17.8)
 Tobacco and alcohol 297 399 22.1 (10.9–44.7) 75.2 % (68.3–80.5)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 18.4 (2.2–152.3) 85.5 % (73.4–92.1)
> 60 years
 None consumption 17 502 reference  
 Alcohol alone 11 176 2.4 (0.8–6.8) 2.5 % (−3.8–8.4)
 Tobacco alone 59 469 5.1 (2.3–11.0) 16.8 % (7.9–24.7)
 Tobacco and alcohol 156 579 16.4 (7.7–35.1) 62.8 % (52.7–70.8)
 Total (Alcohol and/or tobacco)    Ψ = 1.4 (0.4–4.3) 82.1 % (67.4–90.2)
  1. **Negative population attributable risk (PAR) (OR < 1 and not significant)
  2. ORs and PARs for hard palate were not estimated because of lack of cases in the reference category (0 never drinker never smoker)
  3. aLogistic model adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education level, tobacco and alcohol consumption, BMI two years before the interview, family history of head and neck cancer, history of candidiasis and tea consumption
  4. Ψ = alcohol – tobacco interaction term