Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Crude odds ratios for CCA associations with various risk factors

From: Association between praziquantel treatment and cholangiocarcinoma: a hospital-based matched case–control study

Characteristics Cases (n = 210) Controls (n = 840) Crude OR 95 % CI P-value
Number of PZQ treatments (times) - - 1.33 1.16 - 1.51 <0.001
Number of PZQ treatments (times)      <0.001
 0 48.5 65.9 1 -  
 1 32.9 24.4 1.93 1.35 - 2.77  
 2 8.6 4.9 2.72 1.45 - 5.07  
 More than 2 10.0 4.8 3.20 1.75 - 5.74  
Test for linear trend (1df)      <0.001
Highest educational attainment      0.003
 Primary school 79.1 68.1 1 -  
 Secondary school 3.8 6.2 0.51 0.24 - 1.10  
 High school or Diploma 9.5 10.5 0.76 0.45 - 1.28  
 Bachelor’s degree 7.6 15.2 0.40 0.23 - 0.71  
Herbicide use      0.375
 No 79.5 82.0 1 -  
 Yes 20.5 18.0 1.20 0.80 - 1.80  
Rodenticide use      0.001
 No 70.5 81.1 1 -  
 Yes 29.5 18.9 1.81 1.28 - 2.57  
Insecticide use      0.884
 No 87.6 87.3 1 -  
 Yes 12.4 12.7 0.97 0.60 - 1.56  
Fungicide use      0.421
 No 96.7 97.6 1 -  
 Yes 3.3 2.4 1.45 0.58 - 3.61  
Smoking behavior      0.045
 Never smoked 45.2 50.1 1 -  
 Smoker 54.8 49.9 1.74 1.01 - 3.00  
Alcohol use      0.030
 Never used 33.8 40.0 1 -  
 Drinkers 66.2 60.0 1.60 1.05 - 2.45  
Salted fresh water fish, salted meat      0.474
 No 11.0 12.7 1 -  
 Yes 89.0 87.3 1.19 0.73 - 1.94  
Raw, partially cooked raw fish (e.g. Lap-Pla, Koi-Pla)      <0.001
 No 38.6 61.7 1 -  
 Yes 61.4 38.3 3.10 2.18 - 4.40  
Fermented product (e.g. Pla-chao, Pla-chom)      <0.001
 No 23.3 35.1 1 -  
 Yes 76.7 64.9 1.87 1.30 - 2.71  
Grilled/smoked meat      0.892
 No 1.4 1.3 1 -  
 Yes 98.6 98.7 0.91 0.25 - 3.36  
Chinese sausage/other sausages      
 No 35.2 23.0 1 - <0.001
 Yes 64.8 77.0 0.54 0.38 - 0.75  
Fermented fish (Pla-ra)      0.041
 No 1.4 4.6 1 -  
 Yes 98.6 95.4 3.5 1.06 - 11.5  
History of cancer in family      <0.001
 No 50.0 72.1 1 -  
 Yes 50.0 27.9 2.56 1.87 - 3.51  
Combining variables      
Local nitrite-containing foods      0.156
 No 57.6 62.9 1   
 Yes 42.4 37.1 1.25 0.92 - 1.71  
Environmental chemical use      <0.001
 No 55.7 68.7 1   
 Yes 44.3 31.3 1.81 1.31 - 2.50