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Table 4 Sporadic retinoblastoma in relation to the mother’s birth control use and fertility treatment

From: A case–control study of sporadic retinoblastoma in relation to maternal health conditions and reproductive factors: a report from the Children’s Oncology group

  Controls Unilateral (n = 165) Bilateral (n = 87)
  (N = 136)   Crudea Adjusted   Crudea Adjusted
  N (%) N (%) OR OR (95 % CI) N (%) OR OR (95 % CI)
Birth control used in the year before the index pregnancyb        
 Any birth control 75 (52.5) 85 (46.6) 0.8 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 45 (47.9) 0.8 0.7 (0.4, 1.4)
 Oral contraceptive pills 43 (29.3) 60 (32.4) 1.2 1.5 (0.8, 2.5) 28 (29.5) 0.8 0.8 (0.4, 1.6)
 Injection, Implant, skin patch, Vaginal ring 9 (6.1) 13 (7.0) 1.2 1.1 (0.4, 3.3) 7 (7.4) 1.0 0.9 (0.3, 3.5)
 Any hormonal contraceptive 49 (33.3) 71 (38.4) 1.3 1.5 (0.9, 2.6) 34 (35.8) 0.9 0.9 (0.5, 1.7)
 Condoms 26 (17.7) 15 (8.1) 0.4 0.4 (0.2, 0.9) 14 (14.7) 0.9 0.8 (0.4, 1.9)
 Intra uterine device (IUD) 4 (2.7) 3 (1.6) 0.6 0.4 (0.1, 2.1) 1 (1.1) 0.4 0.4 (0.0, 4.8)
 Other type of birth control 2 (1.4) 2 (1.1) 0.9 1.2 (0.2, 9.0) 0 (0.0) - -
Child conceived with the help of fertility treatmentc        
 Any type of fertility treatment used by either parent 9 (6.3) 14 (7.7) 1.1 1.4 (0.5, 3.5) 8 (8.5) 1.2 1.5 (0.5, 4.5)
 Mother took fertility medication for this pregnancy 8 (5.6) 14 (7.6) 1.3 1.6 (0.6, 4.1) 6 (6.4) 1.0 1.2 (0.3, 4.1)
 Used IVF for this pregnancy 0 (0) 7 (3.8) - - 5 (5.3) - -
 Used artificial intrauterine insemination 2 (1.4) 3 (1.6) 1.1 1.3 (0.2, 8.3) 3 (3.2) 2.0 2.3 (0.3, 18.0)
 Used Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) 1 (0.7) 3 (1.6) 1.9 2.0 (0.2, 23.3) 2 (2.1) 1.9 2.4 (0.2, 28.9)
 Problem with egg was the reason for infertility treatment 2 (1.4) 2 (1.1) 0.9 1.1 (0.1, 10.1) 4 (4.3) 2.9 4.0 (0.6, 29.0)
 Problem with sperm was the reason for infertility treatment 0 (0.0) 3 (1.6) - - 2 (2.1) - -
 The reason for infertility treatment was unknown 3 (2.1) 7 (3.8) 1.6 2.3 (0.6, 9.4) 2 (2.1) 0.8 1.3 (0.2, 9.1)
  1. a Adjusted for matching variable, child’s age at interview
  2. bAdjusted for child’s age at interview, mother’s race/ethnicity, mother educational attainment, household income, and if the mother smoked in the month before and during pregnancy
  3. c Adjusted for child’s age at interview, mother’s race/ethnicity, mother’s educational attainment, and household income