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Table 3 Associations between maternal pregnancy history, body size, and breastfeeding with retinoblastoma using unconditional logistic regression

From: A case–control study of sporadic retinoblastoma in relation to maternal health conditions and reproductive factors: a report from the Children’s Oncology group

  Controls Unilateral cases (n = 165) Bilateral cases (n = 87)
  (N = 136)   Crudea Adjustedb   Crudea Adjustedb
  N (%) N (%) OR OR (95 % CI) N (%) OR OR (95 % CI)
Maternal history of stillbirth 1 (0.7) 5 (2.7) 4.8 2.1 (0.2, 20.9) 2 (2.1) 4.1 2.9 (0.2, 49.8)
Order of index pregnancy        
 First pregnancy 55 (38.2) 60 (32.6) 1.0 Referent 33 (35.1) 1.0 Referent
 Second pregnancy 39 (27.1) 57 (31.0) 1.4 1.4 (0.8, 2.7) 32 (34.0) 1.6 1.8 (0.8, 3.8)
 Third and above 50 (34.7) 67 (36.4) 1.3 1.2 (0.7, 2.2) 29 (30.9) 1.1 1.2 (0.6, 2.4)
Order of index child        
 First child 71 (49.3) 86 (46.7) 1.0 Referent 46 (49.5) 1.0 Referent
 Second child 40 (27.8) 68 (37.0) 1.5 1.6 (0.9, 2.8) 27 (29.0) 1.2 1.3 (0.6, 2.7)
 Third and above 33 (22.9) 30 (16.3) 0.8 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 20 (21.5) 1.1 1.1 (0.5, 2.5)
Ever breastfed index child 120 (85.1) 137 (74.9) 0.5 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) 74 (79.6) 0.6 0.7 (0.3, 1.6)
Breastfeeding duration        
 None or <1 month 25 (18.7) 47 (28.5) 1.0 Referent 19 (24.4) 1.0 Referent
 1–6 months 66 (49.3) 67 (40.6) 0.5 0.5 (0.3, 0.9) 36 (46.2) 0.7 0.8 (0.3, 1.8)
 7–11 months 21 (15.7) 16 (9.7) 0.4 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 7 (9.0) 0.4 0.6 (0.2, 1.8)
 12+ months 22 (16.4) 35 (21.2) 0.8 1.0 (0.4, 2.2) 16 (20.5) 1.1 1.0 (0.3, 2.7)
Gave index child formula while breastfeeding 68 (58.1) 78 (56.9) 1.0 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 38 (54.3) 0.8 0.7 (0.4, 1.5)
Mother’s BMI at the start of pregnancy        
 Underweight (BMI:<18.5) 5 (3.5) 10 (5.4) 1.9 2.6 (0.7, 9.4) 8 (8.4) 3.8 4.5 (1.0, 20.1)
 Normal (BMI: 18.5- < 25) 90 (62.1) 101 (54.9) 1.0 Referent 50 (52.6) 1.0 Referent
 Overweight (BMI:25- < 30) 31 (21.4) 45 (24.5) 1.3 1.2 (0.7, 2.3) 20 (21.1) 1.3 1.2 (0.5, 2.6)
 Obese (BMI: ≥ 30) 19 (13.1) 28 (15.2) 1.4 1.1 (0.5, 2.5) 17 (17.9) 1.6 1.0 (0.4, 2.5)
Weight gain in pregnancy        
 Low weight gain 23 (17.0) 26 (14.7) 0.9 0.8 (0.4, 1.8) 12 (13.0) 0.8 0.8 (0.3, 2.0)
 Normal weight gain 51 (37.8) 64 (36.2) 1.0 Referent 34 (37.0) 1.0 Referent
 High weight gain 61 (45.2) 87 (49.2) 1.1 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) 46 (50.0) 1.0 0.8 (0.4, 1.6)
Father’s BMI at the start of pregnancy        
 Underweight (BMI:<18.5) 1 (0.7) 2 (1.2) 2.8 2.2 (0.1,34.6) 2 (2.2) 3.2 3.1 (0.2, 47.5)
 Normal (BMI: 18.5- < 25) 36 (25.7) 33 (20.1) 1.0 Referent 32 (35.2) 1.0 Referent
 Overweight (BMI:25- < 30) 57 (40.7) 84 (51.2) 1.6 1.7 (0.9, 3.1) 33 (36.3) 0.7 0.7 (0.4, 1.5)
 Obese (BMI: ≥ 30) 76 (32.8) 45 (27.4) 1.1 1.0 (0.4, 1.9) 24 (25.4) 0.6 0.6 (0.3, 1.3)
  1. a Adjusted for the matching variable, child’s age at interview
  2. bAdjusted for the child’s age at interview, mother’s race/ethnicity, mother’s educational attainment, and household income