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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Coffee consumption and the risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Study source Sex Follow-up (years) Age at baseline (years) No of participants No of case Exposure assessment Outcome assessment Coffee consumption categories (highest vs. lowest) Relative risk (95 % CI) Adjustment for covariates Study quality
Stensvold & Jacobsen, 1994, Norway M 10.1 35–54 21,735 46 FFQ Norwegian Cancer Registry, death certificates ≥7cups/d vs. ≤ 2cups/d 0.68 (0.28–1.69) No covariate adjustment 7
Stensvold & Jacobsen, 1994, Norway F 10.1 35–54 21,238 32 FFQ Norwegian Cancer Registry, death certificates ≥7cups/d vs. ≤ 2cups/d 0.47 (0.16–1.39) No covariate adjustment 7
Bidel et al., 2013, Finland M 18 26–74 29,159 181 Self-administered questionnaire Finnish Cancer Registry ≥10cups/d vs. ≤ 0cup/d 0.53 (0.26–1.09) Age, study year, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, history of diabetes, tea consumption, and BMI 9
Bidel et al., 2013, Finland F 18 26–74 30,882 118 Self-administered questionnaire Finnish Cancer Registry ≥10cups/d vs. ≤ 0cup/d 2.07 (0.53–8.15) Age, study year, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, history of diabetes, tea consumption, and BMI 9
Larsson et al., 2006, Sweden F 15.7 39–73 61,433 160 FFQ National and Regional Swedish Cancer registry, (ICD-9 codes) ≥4cups/d vs. ≤ 1cup/d 1.86 (1.07–3.25) Age, time period, education, alcohol intake and tea consumption 7
Jacobsen et al.,1986, Norway M/F 11.5 35+ 16,555 147 Self-administered questionnaire Cancer Registry of Norway and deaths records from the Central Bureau of Statistics Registry, ICD-7 codes ≥7cups/d vs. ≤ 2cups/d 1.32 (0.76–2.30) Sex, age and residence 7
Nilsson et al., 2010, Sweden M/F 6 40–60 64,603 70 FFQ Regional cancer registry, ICD-7codes ≥4cups/d vs. < 1cup/d 0.99 (0.44–2.21) Age, sex, BMI, smoking, education, and recreational physical activity 7
Khan et al., 2004, Japan M 13.8 40–97 1,524 36 Self-administered questionnaire Medical records, ICD-9 codes Took several times per week + took every day vs. took never + took several times per year + took several times per month 1.00 (0.50–2.00) Age, smoking 9
Khan et al., 2004, Japan F 14.8 40–97 1,634 15 Self-administered questionnaire Medical records, ICD-9 codes Took several times per week + took every day vs. took never + took several times per year + took several times per month 0.30 (0.10–1.40) Age, health status, health education, health screening & smoking 9
Tsubono et al., 2001, Japan M/F 9 40+ 26,311 419 FFQ Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry records ≥3cups/d vs. never 1.00 (0.60–1.60) Sex; age; type of health insurance; history of peptic ulcer; cigarette smoking; alcohol consumption; daily consumption of rice; tea and consumption of meat, green or yellow vegetables, pickled vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, and bean-paste soup 9
Galanis et al., 1998, United States M 14.8 18+ 5,610 64 Self-administered questionnaire Hawaii Tumor Registry ≥2cups/d vs. none 2.20 (0.90–5.30) Age, years of education, Japanese place of birth, smoking and alcohol intake 8
Galanis et al., 1998, United States F 14.8 18+ 6,297 44 Self-administered questionnaire Hawaii Tumor Registry ≥2cups/d vs. none 1.60 (0.70–3.80) Age, years of education, Japanese place of birth, and smoking 8
Nomura et al., 1986, United States M 15 45–68 7,355 106 Interview Hawaii Tumor Registry ≥5cups/d vs. none 1.18 (0.61–2.27) Age 8
van Loon et al., 1998, Netherlands M 4.3 55–69 58,279 146 Self- administered questionnaire Regional cancer registries in the Netherlands and with a national pathology register >4cups/d vs. ≤ 3cups/d 1.5 (0.95–2.36) No covariate adjustment 6
Ren et al., 2010, United States M/F 5.4 50–71 481,563 231 FFQ State cancer registry databases, ICD-3 codes Cardia ≥3cups/d vs. < 1cup/d 1.57 (1.03–2.39) Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI, education, ethnicity, usual physical activity throughout the day, vigorous physical activity, and the daily intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, white meat, and calorie 7
Ren et al., 2010, United States M/F 5.4 50–71 481,563 223 FFQ State cancer registry databases, ICD-3 codes Non-cardia ≥3cups/d vs. < 1cup/d 1.06 (0.68–1.64) Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, BMI, education, ethnicity, usual physical activity throughout the day, vigorous physical activity, and the daily intake of fruit, vegetables, red meat, white meat, and calorie 7
Ainslie-Waldman et al., 2014, Singapore M 14.7 45–74 27,293 394 FFQ Singapore Cancer Registry and the Singapore Registry of Births and Deaths ≥4cups/d vs. never/monthly 1.06(0.48–2.32) Age, interview year, dialect, education, cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, years smoked, BMI, caffeine, and total energy intake 9
Ainslie-Waldman et al., 2014, Singapore F 14.7 45–74 34,028 253 FFQ Singapore Cancer Registry and the Singapore Registry of Births and Deaths ≥4cups/d vs. never/monthly 0.76(0.23–2.53) Age, interview year, dialect, education, cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, years smoked, BMI, caffeine, and total energy intake 9
Sanikini et al., 2015, International M 11.6 25–70 308,021 395 FFQ, recall record Regional and national mortality registries, ICD-10 codes ≥557 ml/d vs. never/< 131 ml/d 1.51(1.06–2.16) Age, center, smoking, BMI, physical activity, education level, diabetes, alcohol consumption, intake of energy, fiber, vegetable, fruit, fish and red and processed meat 9
Sanikini et al., 2015, International F 11.6 25–70 169,291 288 FFQ, recall record Regional and national mortality registries, ICD-10 codes ≥557 ml/d vs. never/< 131 ml/d 0.72(0.47–1.08) Age, center, smoking, BMI, physical activity, education level, diabetes, alcohol consumption, intake of energy, fiber, vegetable, fruit, fish and red and processed meat 9
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, F female, ICD International Classification of Diseases, M male