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Table 1 Characteristics of the study group

From: Lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity relationship in breast cancer depends on functional polymorphism of GPX1

  Cases Controls p
N 136 183  
Age (years) 51.9 ± 6.5 (35–61) 51.4 ± 4.9 (40–60) 0.092a
BMI (kg/m2) 26.7 ± 4.8 (17.143.1) 27.2 ± 4.8 (18.648.3) 0.611a
Smoking status, n (%)
 Ever smokers 82 (60) 110 (60) 0.973b
 Never smokers 54 (40) 73 (40)  
Current smoking, n (%)
 Yes 30 (22) 50 (27) 0.233b
 No 106 (88) 133 (73)  
Menopausal status (self-reported), n (%)
 Postmenopausal 73 (54) 107 (58) 0.944b
 Premenopausal 51 (37) 76 (42)
 Unknown 12 (9) -  
Histological type, n (%)
 IDC 109 (80) na -
 ILC 4 (3)   
 DCIS 2 (1)   
 LCIS 1 (1)   
 Unknown 20 (15)   
Tumor stage, n (%)
 Tis 3 (2.2) na -
 T1 60 (44.1)   
 T2 55 (40.5)   
 T3 2 (1.5)   
 T4 3 (2.2)   
 Tx 3 (2.2)   
 Unknown 10 (7.3)   
Tumor grade, n (%)
 G1 8 (5.9) na -
 G2 44 (32.4)   
 G3 52 (38.2)   
 Gx 15 (11.0)   
 Unknown 17 (12.5)   
ER status, n (%)
 ER-positive 82 (60) na -
 ER-negative 32 (24)   
 Unknown 22 (16)   
PR status, n (%)
 PR-positive 78 (57.4) na -
 PR-negative 44 (32.3)   
 Unknown 14 (10.3)   
HER2 status, n (%)
 HER2-positive 19 (14.0) na -
 HER2-negative 94 (69.1)   
 Unknown 23 (16.9)   
Treatment, n (%)    
 Yesc 21 (15) na -
 No 115 (85)   
  1. Data for age and BMI expressed as mean ± standard deviation (range)
  2. IDC invasive ductal carcinoma, ILC invasive lobular carcinoma, DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ, LCIS lobular carcinoma in situ, ER estrogen receptors, PR progesterone receptors, HER2 human epidermal growth factor receptors, T tumor stage, G tumor grade, na not applicable
  3. athe Mann–Whitney test
  4. bthe Chi-squared test
  5. cpatients who underwent chemotherapy or breast cancer surgery