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Table 5 Factors associated with disease-free interval (DFI) in canine invasive mammary carcinomas (n = 150)

From: The dog as a naturally-occurring model for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor-overexpressing breast cancer: an observational cohort study

Criteria DFI: Univariate analysis DFI: Multivariate analysis
(log-rank test) N = 150 (Cox regression model) N = 150
HR 95 % CI p-value HR 95 % CI p-value
Body size    0.005    0.07
> 10 kgs 1.00 -   1.00   
≤ 10 kgs 1.99 1.23–3.21   1.66 0.95–2.90  
Age    0.007    0.02
<11 yrs 1.00 -   1.00 -  
≥11 yrs 1.88 1.19–2.98   1.91 1.13–3.24  
Multifocality    0.01    0.76
Unifocal 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Multicentric 2.56 1.22–5.38   0.86 0.32–2.29  
Histological grade    0.06    0.46
Grade I 1.00 - - 1.00 -  
Grade II 1.90 0.89–4.04 0.10 1.76 0.67–4.62 0.25
Grade III 2.43 1.17–5.06 0.02 1.83 0.69–4.86 0.22
Lymphovascular invasion    <0.001    0.04
No LVI 1.00 -   1.00 -  
LVI 2.86 1.81–4.51   1.91 1.02–3.58  
Surgical margins    0.005    0.15
Complete excision 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Incomplete excision 1.94 1.22–3.07   1.57 0.85–2.88  
Muscle infiltration    0.005    0.99
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 2.00 1.23–3.28   1.00 0.54–1.86  
Peritumoral Inflammation    0.04    0.07
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 1.57 1.00–2.47   1.69 0.95–2.99  
Central necrosis    0.03    0.04
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 0.56 0.34–0.93   0.52 0.28–0.97  
Immunophenotype    0.02    0.18
Luminal 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Triple negative 1.80 1.08–3.00   1.54 0.82–2.86  
CK5/6    0.01    0.09
< 10 % 1.00 -   1.00 -  
≥ 10 % 0.55 0.35–0.87   0.61 0.34–1.08  
IGF1R    0.04    0.23
weak (0–1+) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
moderate (2+) 1.22 0.68–2.19 0.51 1.15 0.58–2.28 0.70
strong (3+) 2.09 1.14–3.83 0.02 1.74 0.86–3.55 0.13
  1. Univariate (log rank test) and multivariate survival analyses (Cox proportional hazard regression)
  2. HR Hazard Ratio, 95 % CI 95 % Confidence Interval, CK5/6 Cytokeratin 5/6, IGF1R Insulin-like Growth Factor type 1 Receptor, LVI Lymphovascular Invasion