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Table 4 Factors associated with specific survival (SS) in canine invasive mammary carcinomas (n = 150)

From: The dog as a naturally-occurring model for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor-overexpressing breast cancer: an observational cohort study

Criteria SS: Univariate analysis SS: Multivariate analysis
(log-rank test) N = 150 (Cox regression model) N = 150
HR 95 % CI p-value HR 95 % CI p-value
Body size    0.04    0.63
> 10 kgs 1.00 -   1.00   
≤ 10 kgs 1.68 1.01–2.78   1.16 0.64–2.09  
Multifocality    0.02    0.85
Unifocal 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Multicentric 2.36 1.12–4.97   1.09 0.44–2.72  
Lymph node status    0.001    
N0 1.00 -   - - -
N1 5.07 1.88–13.67     
Histological grade    0.01    0.44
Grade I 1.00 -   1.00 - -
Grade II 2.52 0.97–6.59 0.06 2.02 0.66–6.23 0.22
Grade III 3.74 1.47–9.55 0.006 2.03 0.67–6.19 0.21
Lymphovascular invasion    <0.001    0.002
No LVI 1.00 -   1.00 -  
LVI 4.48 2.68–7.51   2.66 1.43–4.94  
Surgical margins    <0.001    0.24
Complete excision 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Incomplete excision 2.34 1.43–3.83   1.46 0.77–2.78  
Muscle infiltration    0.01    0.76
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 1.88 1.14–3.11   1.10 0.58–2.11  
Peritumoral Inflammation    0.04    0.07
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 1.64 1.02–2.63   1.74 0.96–3.15  
Central necrosis    0.03    0.005
No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Yes 0.57 0.34–0.96   0.43 0.24–0.78  
ER    0.04    
≥ 10 % 1.00 -   - - -
< 10 % 1.91 1.02–3.56     
Ki-67    0.01    0.29
< 20 % 1.00    1.00 -  
≥ 20 % 2.65 1.21–5.80   1.70 0.64–4.51  
Immunophenotype    0.004    0.06
Luminal 1.00 -   1.00 -  
Triple negative 2.35 1.31–4.22   1.94 0.96–3.88  
IGF1R    0.001    0.03
weak (0–1+) 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
moderate (2+) 1.68 0.82–3.44 0.15 1.66 0.72–3.85 0.24
strong (3+) 3.36 1.68–6.72 <0.001 2.81 1.25–6.31 0.01
  1. Univariate (log rank test) and multivariate survival analyses (Cox proportional hazard regression)
  2. HR Hazard Ratio, 95 % CI 95 % Confidence Interval, ER Estrogen Receptor, IGF1R Insulin-like Growth Factor type 1 Receptor, LVI Lymphovascular Invasion
  3. When several significant prognostic factors overlapped, only one was selected for the multivariate analysis (LVI was chosen between lymph node status and LVI because it could have been determined in all cases and immunophenotype was preferred to ER expression)