Inhibition of PKCα results in decreased invasiveness of cancer cells. Invasion analysis of A375m2 (A), K2 (B) and MDA-MB-231 (C) strains upon PKC activator PMA or PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 treatment. Cells were plated onto 3D collagen and let to invade it for 48 hours in the presence of PMA (162nM) or Gö6976 (1 μM). 3D collagen cross-sections were analyzed using NIS Elements software (Nikon) and average invasion depth was calculated and normalized to that of untreated cells. The invasion depth in each individual field of view was assessed as sum of invasion depths of individual cells divided by the total number of cells in the respective field of view (including cells on the top of collagen). Statistical significance (marked by asterisks) was evaluated using ANOVA followed by Tukey’s honest significant difference test.