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Table 3 Hazard ratio (HR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HR* from multivariate Cox regression analysis for female breast cancer patients

From: Effects of payer status on breast cancer survival: a retrospective study

    Hazard ratio, 95% CI  
Group Factor Level HR Lower Upper p-value#
Demographic Age (Years) 18-49 1    
50-64 1.12 1.1 1.13 <.0001
65-74 1.66 1.63 1.69 <.0001
≥75 4.00 3.93 4.07 <.0001
Race White 1    
Black 1.31 1.29 1.33 <.0001
Others 0.78 0.75 0.8 <.0001
Education (%), did not graduate from high school ≥29 1    
20-28 1 0.98 1.01 0.6894
14-19 0.96 0.95 0.98 <.0001
<14 0.89 0.88 0.91 <.0001
Clinical characteristic Stage Stage I 1    
Stage II 1.82 1.8 1.84 <.0001
Stage III 4.5 4.45 4.56 <.0001
Stage IV 15.54 15.32 15.75 <.0001
Charlson Comorbidity 0 1    
1 1.43 1.41 1.46 <.0001
≥2 2.27 2.19 2.34 <.0001
Unknown 1.24 1.22 1.25 <.0001
Access to health care Payer Status Uninsured 1    
Private 0.64 0.62 0.65 <.0001
Medicaid 1.11 1.08 1.15 <.0001
Medicare 0.85 0.82 0.87 <.0001
Unknown 0.78 0.76 0.81 <.0001
Income ($1000) <30 1    
30-34 0.96 0.95 0.98 <.0001
35-45 0.95 0.94 0.96 <.0001
≥46 0.89 0.88 0.91 <.0001
Distance Travelled (Miles) <10 1    
10-24 0.97 0.96 0.98 <.0001
25-49 0.95 0.94 0.96 <.0001
50-99 0.93 0.91 0.95 <.0001
≥100 0.9 0.87 0.93 <.0001
Cancer Program Community 1    
Comprehensive 0.95 0.94 0.96 <.0001
Academic Research 0.90 0.89 0.92 <.0001
Others 1.08 1.05 1.11 <.0001
Diagnosing/Treating Facility Same 1    
Different 0.91 0.9 0.92 <.0001
Treatment Delay (Days) 0-5 1    
6-20 0.93 0.92 0.94 <.0001
21-30 0.90 0.89 0.92 <.0001
≥31 0.98 0.96 0.99 <.0001
  1. *HR: Hazard Ratio of death. CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. #p-value: Chi-test of HR is significantly different from 1 (the reference group of each factor).
  3. For example, HR = 0.64 (0.62-0.65) for private payer status indicated that, adjusting for stage, age, race, etc. the patient with private payer status has a 36% (1–0.64 = 0.36) lower risk of dying compared to uninsured payer status.