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Table 1 Functional implications of circulating microRNAs and their characteristic features in breast cancer patients

From: Feasibility of urinary microRNA detection in breast cancer patients and its potential as an innovative non-invasive biomarker

miRNA signaling pathways target genes source characteristic BC features references
miR-21 apoptosis; EGFR PDCD4, PTEN, BCL-2, HER2, FAS, TPM1 serum in primary BC, correlation to tumor size and lymph node status [10,15,16,25-29]
miR-34 a vascularization; EGFR, β-Catenin VEGF, MYC, BCL2, WNT, p53 serum in metastatic BC compared to primary BC and controls [13,30]
miR-125b apoptosis; EGFR HER2, p53, BAK1 serum in primary BC, prediction of chemotherapy resistance [17,18,31-33]
miR-155 Akt; apoptosis; morphogenesis; EMT VHL, VEGF, p53, TGF- β serum in primary BC; after surgery and chemotherapy [20,21,34,35]
miR-195 apoptosis BCL 2, CDK6 whole blood in primary BC [12,19]
serum in primary BC [22]
miR-200b EMT ZEB1/2, E-Cadherin plasma in metastatic BC; correlation to CTC status [18,36]
miR-200c EMT ZEB1/2, E-Cadherin plasma in metastatic BC; correlation to CTC status [18,37]
miR-375 apoptosis 14-3-3 Protein plasma in metastatic BC [14,18]
miR-451 MDR MDR1, 14-3-3 Protein plasma, serum in primary BC [24,38,39]
  1. MiRNA specimen pre-selection for this study was based on previous investigations elucidating functional features and interrelations of miRNA expression in regard to breast carcinogenesis.
  2. : increased, : decreased expression levels of miRNAs in comparison to healthy controls; EMT: epithelial-mesenchymal-transition; CTC: circulating tumor cells; MDR: multi-drug resistance.