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Table 2 Subgroup analysis of odds ratio of hot beverages and foods and esophageal cancer

From: Consumption of hot beverages and foods and the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

  No of reports OR (95% CI) I 2 P for heterogeneity
Sex      
Men 8 2.36 1.53–3.65 87.60% 0.001
Women 7 2.45 1.51–3.98 85.60% 0.001
Combined 37 1.78 1.49–2.16 89.30% 0.001
Type of EC      
ESCC 26 1.60 1.29–2.00 88.70% 0.001
EAC 4 0.79 0.53–1.16 50.30% 0.110
NR 20 2.35 1.90–2.91 80.70% 0.001
Study quality      
Score ≥ 7 2 2.73 2.06–3.62 12.90% 0.284
Score < 7 45 1.78 1.49–2.14 90.40% 0.001
Study location      
Asia 28 2.06 1.62–2.61 91.70% 0.001
South America 13 1.52 1.25–1.85 66.70% 0.001
Europe 5 0.95 0.68–1.34 62.40% 0.031
Africa 1 12.78 6.95–23.5 . 0.001
Measurement domain      
Temperature categories 33 1.84 1.54–2.21 83.80% 0.001
Whether consuming or not 5 2.14 0.94–4.88 98.30% 0.001
Preference 4 1.44 0.88–2.35 66.30% 0.031
Frequency 5 1.71 1.24–2.36 68.90% 0.012
Beverages and foods domain      
Tea 8 1.88 1.16–3.07 94.30% 0.001
Mate 10 1.72 1.43–2.07 47.50% 0.046
Foods 11 2.09 1.71–2.56 57.80% 0.008
Others 18 1.73 1.19–2.49 93.70% 0.001
Controlling age in models      
Yes 17 1.6 1.24–2.07 88.50% 0.001
No 30 1.98 1.55–2.52 91.30% 0.001
Controlling smoking in models      
Yes 29 1.61 1.26–2.07 89.30% 0.001
No 27 2 1.56–2.55 90.50% 0.001
Controlling alcohol intake in models      
Yes 19 1.56 1.21–2.02 88.00% 0.001
No 28 2.03 1.59–2.59 91.60% 0.001
Study setting      
Population 14 1.52 1.07–2.16 94.1% 0.001
Hospital 24 2.10 1.56–2.82 89.8% 0.001
NR 9 1.73 1.44–2.06 59.7% 0.040
Exposure assessment      
Interview 14 1.33 1.03–1.71 80.0% 0.001
Questionnaire 33 2.07 1.67–2.57 91.5% 0.001
Outcome assessment      
Histology 30 1.68 1.36–2.07 88.2% 0.001
Record 17 1.90 1.50–2.41 86.3% 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: EC = esophageal cancer; ESCC = esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; EAC = esophageal adenocarcinoma; NR = not reported.