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Table 2 Clinical Characteristics and outcome of the HCC patients with EHMP

From: Prevalence and outcomes of extrahepatic primary malignancy associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Korean population

Variables PriorEHPM group (n = 7) SynchronousEHPM group (n = 17) MetachronousEHPM group (n = 9) Total (n = 33) p-value
Age, yearsa, ‡ 64.3 ± 2.6 62.5 ± 2.8 63.3 ± 4.2 63.1 ± 1.8 0.936
Male sexb 4 (57.1) 14 (82.4) 7 (77.8) 25 (75.8) 0.487
Smoking, >10 pack-yearsb 3 (42.9) 6 (35.3) 3 (37.5) 12 (37.5) 1.000
Etiology of liver diseaseb      0.471
 HBsAg (+) 5 (71.4) 6 (35.3) 5 (55.6) 16 (48.5)  
 Anti-HCV (+) 1 (14.3) 1(5.9) 0 (0.0) 2 (6.1)
 Alcohol 0 (0.0) 5(29.4) 1 (11.1) 6 (18.2)
 Other 1 (14.3) 5(29.4) 3 (33.3) 9 (27.3)
CTP scoreb      0.212
 A 6 (85.7) 17 (100.0) 9 (100.0) 32 (97.0)  
 B 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.0)
pTNM stage of HCCb      0.191
 I 2 (28.6) 12 (70.6) 5 (55.6) 19 (57.6)  
 II 4 (57.1) 3 (17.6) 4 (44.4) 11 (33.3)
 III or IV 1 (14.3) 2 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (9.1)
AFP (ng/mL)b      0.470
 <20 5 (71.4) 11 (68.8) 4 (50.0) 20 (64.5)  
 20–200 0 (0.0) 2 (12.5) 3 (37.5) 5 (16.1)
 >200 2 (28.6) 3 (18.8) 1 (12.5) 6 (19.4)
Location of EHPMb      
 Esophagus 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.0) 1.000
 Stomach 4 (57.1) 4 (23.5) 1 (11.1) 9 (27.3) 0.152
 Colorectal 1 (14.3) 6 (35.3) 3 (33.3) 10 (30.3) 0.697
 Pancreas 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 1 (3.0) 0.485
 Common bile duct 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 1 (3.0) 0.485
 Breast 2 (28.6) 2 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (12.1) 0.222
 Thyroid 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 1 (3.0) 0.485
 Kidney 1 (14.3) 2 (11.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (9.1) 0.579
 Bladder 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 1 (3.0) 0.485
 Prostate 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 1 (3.0) 0.485
 Retroperitoneum 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.0) 1.000
 Bone marrow 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.0) 1.000
pTNM stage of EHPM      0.166
 0 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (3.3)  
 1 4 (80.0) 8 (47.1) 1 (12.5) 13 (43.3)  
 2 1 (20.0) 4 (23.5) 1 (12.5) 6 (20.0)  
 3 0 (0.0) 3 (17.6) 5 (62.5) 8 (26.7)  
 4 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 1 (12.5) 2 (6.7)  
Treatment of EHPMb      1.000
 Operation 7 (100.0) 14 (82.4) 7 (77.8) 28 (84.8)  
 Radiation or Chemotherapy 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 1 (11.1) 2 (6.1)  
 Supportive care 0 (0.0) 2 (11.8) 1 (11.1) 3 (9.1)  
Progression or recurrence of EHPMb 0 (0.0) 6 (35.3) 3 (33.3) 9 (27.3) 0.221
Follow-up duration (months)a 18.4 ± 5.9 35.9 ± 6.7 49.8 ± 12.5 36.0 ± 5.2 0.115
Overall median survival (months) 18.0 32.0 38.0 28.0  
Recurrence of HCCb 3 (42.9) 5 (29.4) 2 (22.2) 10 (30.3) 0.781
Deathb 2 (28.6) 7 (41.2) 2 (22.2) 11 (33.3) 0.628
Cause of deathb      0.697
 Liver-related 1 (50.0) 3 (42.9) 2 (100.0) 6 (100.0)  
 Other 1 (50.0) 4 (57.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (100.0)
  1. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; CTP, Child-Turcotte-Pugh; EHPM, extrahepatic primary malignant neoplasm; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; pTNM stage, pathologic TNM stage.
  2. amean ± standard deviation, bpercent.
  3. Prior EHPM group, EHPM developed more than 6 months before the diagnosis of HCC; Synchronous EHPM group, EHPM developed within 6 months of the diagnosis of HCC; Metachronous EHPM group, EHPM developed more than 6 months after the diagnosis of HCC.
  4. At the time of HCC diagnosis.
  5. *p < 0.05.