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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of 250 surgically resected HCC patients according to the existence of EHPM

From: Prevalence and outcomes of extrahepatic primary malignancy associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Korean population

Variables non-EHPM group (n = 217) EHPM group (n = 33) p-value
Age, yearsa, † 55.1 ± 11.1 63.1 ± 10.6 <0.001*
Male sexb 168 (77.4) 25 (75.8) 0.832
Diabetes mellitusb 36 (16.6) 12 (36.4) 0.007*
Hypertensionb 60 (27.6) 16 (48.5) 0.015*
Coexisting cirrhosisb 126 (58.1) 21 (63.6) 0.545
Etiology of liver diseaseb    <0.001*
 HBsAg (+) 167 (77.0) 16( 48.5)  
 Anti-HCV (+) 19 (8.8) 2 (6.1)
 Alcohol 9 (4.1) 6 (18.8)
 Other 22 (10.1) 9 (27.30)
CTP scoreb    1.000
 A 206 (94.9) 32 (97.0)  
 B 11 (5.1) 1 (3.0)
MELD scorea 6.1 ± 3.4 5.4 ± 3.3 0.210
AST (IU/L)a 54.9 ± 74.1 33.6 ± 13.8 0.024*
ALT (IU/L)a 55.8 ± 90.1 31.3 ± 17.4 0.016*
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)a 1.5 ± 7.1 0.7 ± 0.3 0.020*
Serum albumin (g/dL)a 4.0 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.5 0.126
Platelet count (×103/μL)a 162.7 ± 72.7 171.2 ± 65.6 0.439
APRI scorea 1.1 ± 1.4 0.6 ± 0.3 0.034*
AFP (ng/mL)b    0.149
 <20 109 (50.9) 20 (64.5)  
 20–200 41 (19.2) 5 (16.1)
 >200b 64 (29.9) 6 (19.4)
pTNM stage of HCCb    0.259
 I 106 (40.8) 19 (57.6)  
 II 77 (35.5) 11 (33.3)
 III or IV 34 (15.7) 3(9.1)
Portal vein or major vessel invasionb 11 (5.1) 3 (9.1) 0.406
Microvessel invasionb 86 (39.6) 12 (36.4) 0.720
Tumor sizea 4.2 ± 2.8 3.8 ± 2.5 0.477
Follow-up duration (months)a 48.5 ± 26.2 36.0 ± 30.0 0.013*
Overall median survival (months) 46.0 27.0 0.178
HCC recurrenceb 114 (52.5) 10 (30.3) 0.017*
Time to recurrence (months)a 17.8 ± 16.8 21.4 ± 17.5 0.548
Number of deathsb 54 (24.9) 11 (33.3) 0.303
Time to death (months)a 29.8 ± 22.6 15.2 ± 15.3 0.045*
Cause of deathb    0.005*
 Liver-related 50 (92.6) 6 (54.5)  
 Other 4 (7.4) 5 (45.5)
  1. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; APRI, AST to platelet ratio index; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CTP, Child-Turcotte-Pugh; EHPM, extrahepatic primary malignancy; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; pTNM stage, pathologic TNM stage.
  2. amean ± standard deviation.
  3. bpercent.
  4. At the time of HCC diagnosis.
  5. *p < 0.05.