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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of cancer-specific survival

From: Are urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract a distinct entity from urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder? Behavior of urothelial carcinoma after radical surgery with respect to anatomical location: a case control study

  Univariate Multivariate
  HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Tumor location     
Upper urinary tract vs. Bladder 0.889 (0.650-1.216) 0.462   
Age, years 1.022 (1.005-1.039) 0.010 1.027 (1.010-1.044) 0.002
Sex     
Female vs. Male 0.980 (0.643-1.493) 0.926   
Body mass index, kg/m2 0.921 (0.874-0.971) 0.002 0.965 (0.916-1.016) 0.177
ASA score     
≥2 vs.1 0.978 (0.711-1.343) 0.889   
Hydronephrosis     
Present vs. Absent 1.672 (1.221-2.289) 0.001 1.409 (1.015-1.957) 0.041
Pathological T category     
pT2 vs. ≤pT1 3.410 (1.919-6.058) <0.001 2.707 (1.500-4.884) 0.001
≥pT3 vs. ≤pT1 7.115 (4.366-11.593) <0.001 4.960 (2.943-8.359) <0.001
Pathological N category     
pNx vs. pN- 1.126 (0.784-1.619) 0.520 1.126 (0.760-1.669) 0.554
pN+ vs. pN- 3.580 (2.364-5.422) <0.001 1.986 (1.282-3.074) 0.002
Tumor grade     
III vs. ≤II 1.963 (1.432-2.689) <0.001 1.105 (0.778-1.567) 0.578
LVI     
Present vs. Absent 2.875 (2.098-3.938) <0.001 1.663 (1.164-2.374) 0.005
Associated CIS     
Present vs. Absent 0.971 (0.624-1.512) 0.898   
Surgical margin     
Positive vs. Negative 3.158 (1.930-5.166) <0.001 1.483 (0.888-2.477) 0.132
  1. Abbreviations: HR = hazard ratio, CI = confidence interval, ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists, LVI = Lymphovascular invasion, CIS = carcinoma in situ.