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Table 4 Association of NAT2 acetylator phenotype with OSCC risk upon exposure to environmental risk factors in Black and Mixed Ancestry South Africans

From: NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure as risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study

    NAT2 rapid acetylators NAT2 slow/intermediate acetylators
Population Risk factors Variables Controls Cases OR (95% CI)a P-value Controls Cases OR (95% CI)a P-value
Black           
  Tobacco smoking Never smokers 49 39 1 (Ref)   206 132 1 (Ref)  
   Smokersb 38 51 2.58 (0.80-8.25) 0.111 180 220 2.76 (1.69-4.52) <0.0001
  Tot cigarettes/day 0 49 39 1 (Ref)   206 132 1 (Ref)  
   ≤9 23 31 2.23 (0.67-7.36) 0.189 112 143 3.27 (1.93-5.54) <0.0001
   ≥10 13 19 3.79 (0.92-15.7) 0.066 58 72 2.49 (1.34-4.62) 0.004
  Alcohol drinking Non-drinkers 34 39 1 (Ref)   164 127 1 (Ref)  
   Drinkersc 53 51 0.94 (0.34-2.62) 0.903 221 224 0.91 (0.59-1.41) 0.675
  Red meat intaked 3 times/week or less 55    198 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 5    31 1.67 (0.61-4.58) 0.316
  White meat intaked 3 times/week or less 33    113 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 27    117 1.28 (0.72-2.29) 0.397
Mixed Ancestry          
  Tobacco smoking Never smokers 8 2 1 (Ref)   54 12 1 (Ref)  
   Smokersb 41 53 185 191
  Tot cigarettes/day 0 8 2 1 (Ref)   54 12 1 (Ref)  
   ≤9 22 25 96 58
   ≥10 16 27 74 129
  Alcohol drinking Non-drinkers 15 9 1 (Ref)   100 41 1 (Ref)  
   Drinkersc 34 47 2.43 (0.65-9.15) 0.188 138 162 2.77 (1.38-5.58) 0.004
  Red meat intaked 3 times/week or less 31    75 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 5    43 3.55 (1.29-9.82) 0.019
  White meat intaked 3 times/week or less 20    51 1 (Ref)  
   Daily or almost daily 16    66 1.80 (0.81-4.02) 0.149
  1. Samples with unknown acetylator status are not shown.
  2. Ref = reference allele.
  3. aOR was adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption status; OR was not calculated for subgroups with low sample size.
  4. bSmokers = current and former smokers.
  5. cDrinkers = light to heavy alcohol drinkers.
  6. dCase-only analysis has been performed for red meat intake due to lack of data from control individuals.