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Table 1 Characteristics of the population study and effect of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and red meat intake on OSCC risk

From: NAT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure as risk factors for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study

   Black Mixed Ancestry   
Demographic/risk factors Variables Controls (%) Cases (%) OR (95% CI)a P-value Controls (%) Cases (%) OR (95% CI)a P-value
Gender Males 235 (49) 229 (49)    178 (62) 177 (66)   
Females 245 (51) 234 (51)    110 (38) 92 (34)   
Age Mean (SDb) 56.7 (15.0) 59.6 (10.7)    57.7 (14.3) 60.7 (10.3)   
Tobacco smoking Never smokers 258 (54) 181 (39) 1 (Ref)   62 (22) 15 (6) 1 (Ref)  
Smokersc 222 (46) 280 (60) 1.79 (1.39-2.33) <0.0001 226 (78) 250 (93) 4.57 (2.53-8.27) <0.0001
Unknown 0 (0) 2 (0.4)    0 (0) 4 (1)   
Total cigarettes/day 0 258 (54) 181 (39) 1 (Ref)   62 (21) 15 (6) 1 (Ref)  
<10 137 (28) 179 (39) 1.86 (1.39-2.49) <0.0001 118 (41) 85 (31) 2.98 (1.59-5.59) 0.001
≥10 73 (15) 95 (20) 1.85 (1.29-2.66) 0.001 90 (31) 160 (59) 7.35 (3.95-13.6) <0.0001
Unknown 12 (2) 8 (2)    18 (6) 9 (3)   
Alcohol drinking Non-drinkers 201 (42) 175 (38) 1 (Ref)   115 (40) 51 (19) 1 (Ref)  
Drinkersd 278 (58) 286 (62) 1.18 (0.91-1.53) 0.211 172 (60) 215 (80) 2.82 (1.92-4.15) <0.0001
Unknown 1 (0.2) 2 (0.4)    1 (0.3) 3 (1)   
Tobacco smoking + alcohol drinking Never smokerse 257 (53) 180 (39) 1 (Ref)   62 (21) 15 (6) 1 (Ref)  
Smokers/non-drinkers 41 (8) 33 (7) 1.15 (0.70-1.89) 0.583 75 (26) 37 (14) 2.04 (1.02-4.06) 0.042
Smokers/drinkers 181 (38) 247 (53) 1.95 (1.49-2.55) <0.0001 150 (52) 213 (79) 5.87 (3.22-10.7) <0.0001
Unknown 1 (0.2) 3 (0.6)    1 (0.3) 4 (1)   
Red meat intake 3 times/week or less 261 (56)    108 (40)   
Daily or almost daily 37 (8)    50 (19)   
Unknown 165 (36)    111 (41)   
White meat intake 3 times/week or less 151 (33)    75 (28)   
Daily or almost daily 148 (32)    82 (30)   
Unknown 164 (35)    112 (42)   
Fish 3 times/week or less 289 (62)    146 (54)   
Daily or almost daily 9 (2)    11 (4)   
Unknown 165 (36)    112 (42)   
Vegetables 3 times/week or less 243 (52)    54 (20)   
Daily or almost daily 53 (11)    101 (37)   
Unknown 165 (36)    114 (42)   
Fried food 3 times/week or less 291 (63)    135 (50)   
Daily or almost daily 5 (1)    20 (7)   
Unknown 167 (36)    114 (42)   
  1. aCrude odds ratio was calculated.
  2. bSD = standard deviation of the mean.
  3. cSmokers = current and former smokers.
  4. dDrinkers = light to heavy alcohol drinkers.
  5. eNever smokers (including drinkers and non-drinkers).
  6. Ref = reference allele.