Migration, invasion and proliferation of GES-1, CM-MSCs, and hybrids. Transwell migration assay showed that GES-1 (panel A), CM-MSCs (panel B), and hybrids (panel C) could pass through the microporous membrane at 24 h, but only hybrids (panel D) could penetrate through Matrigel and cross the microporous membrane in the transwell invasion assay. Magnification: 100×, Scale bar 100 μm. Representative of three experiments are shown. (panel E) Graph indicates the number of cells crossing the microporous membrane in the transwell (hybrids vs. GES-1, p < 0.05; hybrids vs. CM-MSCs, p < 0.05), and number of hybrids penetrated Matrigel, indicated with hybrids(G). (panel F) Graph indicates the proliferation curve of GES-1, CM-MSCs, and hybrids (hybrids vs. GES-1, p > 0.05; hybrids vs. CM-MSCs, p < 0.05). Means ± SD of representative experiments are shown. A total of three experiments were performed.