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Table 5 Cox regression analysis showing association between survival and pre-radiotherapy plasma carotenoid levels.

From: Pre-radiotherapy plasma carotenoids and markers of oxidative stress are associated with survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients: a prospective study

Carotenoids Crude Adjusteda
  Hazard rate ratio 95% CI p-value Hazard rate ratio 95% CI p-value
Progression-free survival
Lutein 0.40 0.20-0.80 0.01 0.47 0.22-0.98 0.04
zeaxanthin 0.49 0.25-0.97 0.04 0.55 0.27-1.09 0.09
β-cryptoxanthin 0.41 0.20-0.83 0.01 0.46 0.23-0.94 0.03
α-carotene 0.52 0.26-1.04 0.06 0.57 0.28-1.17 0.12
β-carotene 0.41 0.21-0.83 0.01 0.45 0.22-0.92 0.03
Lycopene 0.66 0.34-1.30 0.23 0.71 0.35-1.41 0.32
Total carotenoids 0.36 0.17-0.73 0.005 0.42 0.20-0.91 0.03
Overall survival
Lutein 0.30 0.12-0.72 0.007 0.39 0.16-0.96 0.04
zeaxanthin 0.40 0.17-0.93 0.03 0.49 0.21-1.14 0.10
β-cryptoxanthin 0.25 0.10-0.63 0.003 0.27 0.11-0.69 0.006
α-carotene 0.32 0.14-0.78 0.01 0.36 0.15-0.86 0.02
β-carotene 0.20 0.07-0.52 0.001 0.23 0.08-0.62 0.004
Lycopene 0.63 0.28-1.40 0.26 0.63 0.27-1.45 0.28
Total carotenoids 0.26 0.10-0.65 0.004 0.38 0.15-0.98 0.05
  1. The above median levels- are compared with below median levels- of plasma carotenoids in 78 patients for progression-free and overall survivals.
  2. aThe analysis are adjusted for stage, treatment and smoking status