0.99) as a ranking tool in all 224 human liver tissues examined by 2-DE analysis. Of high importance, ACTB and HSP 60 were successfully validated at both protein and mRNA levels in human hepatic tissues by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, no significant correlation of these markers with any clinicopathological features of HCC and cirrhosis was found. Gene stability measure of these two markers with other conventionally applied housekeeping genes was assessed by the geNorm algorithm, which ranked ACTB and HSP60 as the most stable genes among this cohort of clinical samples. Conclusion Our findings identified 2 reference markers that exhibited stable expression across human liver tissues with different conditions thus should be regarded as reliable reference moieties for normalisation of gene and protein expression in clinical research employing human hepatic tissues."/>
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Table 4 The ranking of reference gene expression stability in set of human liver tissues

From: A protein-based set of reference markers for liver tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma

Ranking order* HCC, Cirrhosis
and Normal
M V
8 HPRT1 0.94 0.147
7 SDHA 0.82 0.134
6 B2M 0.74 0.147
5 RPL13A 0.63 0.132
4 HMBS 0.55 0.131
3 RPL32 0.51 0.158
The 2 most stably expressed genes ACTB, HSP60 0.47  
  1. Gene stability increased from top to bottom; M, gene stability value; V, pairwise stability value