0.99) as a ranking tool in all 224 human liver tissues examined by 2-DE analysis. Of high importance, ACTB and HSP 60 were successfully validated at both protein and mRNA levels in human hepatic tissues by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, no significant correlation of these markers with any clinicopathological features of HCC and cirrhosis was found. Gene stability measure of these two markers with other conventionally applied housekeeping genes was assessed by the geNorm algorithm, which ranked ACTB and HSP60 as the most stable genes among this cohort of clinical samples. Conclusion Our findings identified 2 reference markers that exhibited stable expression across human liver tissues with different conditions thus should be regarded as reliable reference moieties for normalisation of gene and protein expression in clinical research employing human hepatic tissues."/>
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Table 1 Protein expression of SSP3412, SSP4503, and SSP6510 in tumourous, non-tumourous cirrhotic and normal liver tissues

From: A protein-based set of reference markers for liver tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma

Spot ID Spot identity Phenotypes Mean Intensity (ppm) 95% CI ANOVA
(p-value*)
SSP3412 Beta-actin Tumour 7.59 ± 0.89 5.82-9.37 0.99
   Non-tumour 7.61 ± 1.76 4.10-11.12  
   Normal 7.49 ± 1.02 5.45-9.54  
   Combined Groups 7.56 ± 1.22 5.12-10.00 -
SSP4503 Heat shock protein 60 Tumour 7.74 ± 0.94 5.85-9.62 0.99
   Non-tumour 7.73 ± 1.55 4.62-10.84  
   Normal 7.55 ± 1.12 5.30-9.79  
   Combined Groups 7.67 ± 1.20 5.27-10.07 -
SSP6510 Protein disulphide isomerase Tumour 7.36 ± 1.08 5.20-9.52 0.99
   Non-tumour 7.39 ± 1.65 4.09-10.68  
   Normal 7.20 ± 1.43 4.35-10.05  
   Combined Groups 7.32 ± 1.39 4.54-10.10 -
  1. * P-value does not imply any measure of statistical significance; it is apply as a ranking tool to identify proteins with low variability across different diagnostic groups.