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Table 5 Multivariate analysis considering the influence of age (>70 vs. ≤70 years) and comorbidities (1. any comorbidity, 2. specific comorbidities) on individual symptoms

From: Impact of age and comorbidities on health-related quality of life for patients with prostate cancer: evaluation before a curative treatment

question risk factor hazard ratio 95% confidence interval p-value
leaking urine ≥once a day comorbidity 2.2 1.2-3.8 < 0.01
  coronary heart disease 1.7 1.0-2.9 0.06
  diabetes 1.9 1.0-3.7 0.06
no complete urinary control age 1.9 1.3-2.7 < 0.01
great/moderate problem with frequent urination comorbidity 2.0 1.2-3.3 < 0.01
  diabetes 3.3 1.9-5.9 < 0.01
great/moderate problem with urinary function overall comorbidity 2.2 1.2-3.9 < 0.01
  diabetes 2.5 1.3-4.8 < 0.01
erections not firm enough for intercourse age 2.8 1.7-4.7 < 0.01
  comorbidity 1.7 1.0-2.9 0.04
  diabetes 7.0 2.3-21 < 0.01
great/moderate problem with sexual function overall age 1.8 1.1-3.7 0.04
  comorbidity 1.9 1.1-3.5 0.03
  diabetes 2.9 1.3-6.2 < 0.01
hot flashes ≥once a day comorbidity 3.5 1.0-12 0.05
  COPD 5.6 1.9-16 < 0.01
lack of energy ≥once a day age 0.4 0.2-1.0 < 0.05
  comorbidity 4.2 1.4-12 0.01
great/moderate problem with hot flashes COPD 4.5 1.5-13 < 0.01
great/moderate problem with lack of energy comorbidity 2.7 1.1-6.4 0.03
  1. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease