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Table 1 Socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics for the overall study population and according to cervical cytology results

From: Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Overall
N = 109
Normal/
ASCUS
Pap smear
N = 48
LSIL/HSIL Pap smear
N = 49
P valuea
  Data are N (%) except where otherwise specified  
Median age in years
(range)
31 (20 – 61) 32 (20 – 57) 30 (20 – 61) 0.43
Employed 21 (19.3) 12 (25) 7 (14.3) 0.18
Ever smoked 21 (19.3) 5 (10.4) 16 (32.7) 0.03
Married or in stable relationship 52 (47.7) 22 (45.8) 23 (46.9) 1.00
Median years of school attendance (range) 10 (0 – 13) 10 (0 – 13) 9 (0 – 13) 0.42
Ever pregnant 89 (81.7) 40 (83.3) 39 (79.6) 0.64
Ever used injectable contraception 97 (89.0) 43 (89.6) 42 (85.7) 0.56
Ever used oral contraception 29 (26.6) 11 (22.9) 13 (26.5) 0.68
Ever used condoms 55 (50.5) 21 (43.8) 29 (59.2) 0.13
Median age of first intercourse (range) 17 (4 – 25) 17 (13 – 21) 16 (4 – 25) 0.12
Median number of sexual partners (range) 4 (1 – 13) 4 (1 – 10) 4 (1 – 13) 0.15
Ever had an STI 92 (84.4) 41 (85.4) 42 (85.7) 0.97
Past Pap smear 46 (42.2) 23 (47.9) 16 (32.7) 0.10
Median CD4 count
(range)
125 (14 – 1047) 125.5 (14 – 1047) 123 (32 – 313) 0.95
HR-HPV present
(Digene)
86 (78.9) 28 (58.3) 47 (95.9) < 0.001
HR-HPV present
(Roche)
97 (89.0) 37 (77.1) 49 (100) < 0.001
Median HPV viral load in RLU (range)
All samples
64.3 (0.12 – 2248.95) 3.19 (0.12–1373.77) 365.49 (0.21–2248.95) < 0.001
Median HPV viral load in RLU (range)
Only HC2 positives
181.06 (1.19–2248.95) 60.3 (1.19–1373.77) 444.07 (11.98–2248.95) 0.001
Prevalence of multiple HPV types
Only HC2 positives
76 (78.4) 23 (62.2) 45 (91.8) 0.001
  1. a P values are from Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests for medians and chi-squared tests for proportions or Fisher's exact tests where numbers in the cells were < 5.
  2. ASCUS, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; LSIL, low grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions; HSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; HPV, human papillomavirus; STI, sexually transmitted infection; HR-HPV, high-risk human papillomavirus; RLU, relative light units; HC2, Hybrid Capture 2