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Table 3 Associated factors with overall survival

From: Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

N = 293 Mean ± SE (months) pUnivariate Analysis RR (95% CI) pMultivariate Analysis
Age     
   <60 years 8.33 ± 0.7 0.028 1.09 (0.8–1.47) 0.53
   ≥60 years 6.03 ± 0.7    
Gender     
   Female 8.03 ± 0.57 0.02 1.4 (1.002–1.9) 0.048
   Male 6.2 ± 0.41    
Smoking History     
   Negative 7.2 ± 0.8 0.14   
   Positive 6.4 ± 0.6    
ECOG     
   1 9.9 ± 0.3 <0.001 1.8 (1.5–2.3) 0.002
   2 7.07 ± 0.59    
   3 3.83 ± 0.4    
Clinical Stage     
   III B 9.4 ± 1.76 0.056 1.44 (1.02–2) 0.04
   IV 7 ± 0.86    
Histology     
   Adenocarcinoma 6.2 ± 0.8 0.67   
   *Others 7.8 ± 0.69    
CNS Metastasis at diagnosis     
   Negative 7 ± 0.6 0.9   
   Positive 4.7 ± 1    
Liver Metastasis at diagnosis     
   Negative 7.03 ± 0.5 0.51   
   Positive 5.13 ± 2.6    
CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL     
   Negative 7.8 ± 0.6 0.002 1.5 (1.09–2.2) 0.014
   Positive 3.87 ± 0.65    
EGFR***     
   Positive 3.8 ± 1 0.023 1.6 (1.4–19) 0.012
   Negative 8.7 ± 2    
HER2***     
   Positive 4.9 ± 2 0.3   
   Negative 4.2 ± 2    
  1. SE: Standard Error.
  2. ECOG: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale.
  3. *Others: Squamous, Giant Cells, Undifferentiated.
  4. CNS: Central Nervous System.
  5. RR (95% CI): Relative Risk (95% Confidence Interval).
  6. CEA: Carcinoembryonic Antigen.
  7. EGFR: Epidermal Growth-Factor Receptor.
  8. ***: Tissue expression was determined only in 85 different
  9. primary tumor samples (see text).