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Table 2 Selected characteristics of the study subjects and potential risk factors for breast cancer

From: CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1gene polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer: an Italian case-control study

  Cases (n = 547) (%) Controls (n = 544) (%) ORb (95% CI)
Menopausal status    
Premenopausal 187 (34.2) 230 (42.3) 1.0
Postmenopausal 360 (65.8) 314 (57.7) 0.75 (0.44–1.29)
Age at menarche    
<13 99 (18.1) 87 (16.0) 1.0
13–14 230 (42.0) 212 (39.0) 0.73 (0.54–1.06)
≥ 15 218 (39.9) 245 (45.0) 0.91 (0.62–1.26)
Age at FFTP    
Nulliparous 116 (21.2) 65 (11.9) 1.0
≤ 25 269 (49.2) 296 (54.4) 0.76 (0.52–1.09)
26–30 107 (19.6) 138 (25.4) 0.44 (0.30–0.65)**
≥ 31 55 (10.0) 45 (8.3) 0.67 (0.38–1.12)
Number of full-term pregnancies    
Nulliparous 116 (21.2) 65 (12.0) 1.0
1 77 (14.1) 72 (13.2) 0.60 (0.37–0.95)**
2 160 (29.2) 204 (37.5) 0.45 (0.32–0.63)*
3+ 194 (35.5) 203 (37.3) 0.55 (0.38–0.77)*
Use of oral contraceptives    
Never 359 (65.6) 275 (50.6) 1.0
Ever 188 (34.4) 269 (49.4) 0.55 (0.40–0.71)**
Postmenopausal use of estrogen    
Never 254 (70.6) 208 (66.2) 1.0
Ever 106 (29.4) 106 (33.8) 0.80 (0.60–1.02)
WHR    
≤ 0.91 216 (39.5) 270 (49.6) 1.0
> 0.91 331 (60.5) 274 (50.4) 1.49 (1.17–1.91)**
BMI (kg/m2)    
≤ 25.4 243 (44.4) 271 (49.8) 1.0
> 25.4 304 (55.6) 273 (50.2) 1.21 (0.96–1.55)
First-degree family history of breast cancer    
No 485 (88.7) 519 (95.4) 1.0
Yes 62 (11.3) 25 (4.6) 2.63 (1.60–4.40)**
History of benign breast disease    
No 340 (62.2) 375 (68.9) 1.0
Yes 207 (37.8) 169 (31.1) 1.32 (1.02–1.72)*
Educationa    
Low 332 (60.7) 313 (57.5) 1.0
Medium 144 (26.3) 153 (28.1) 0.87 (0.66–1.15)
High 71 (13.0) 78 (14.4) 0.83 (0.57–1.25)
Current alcohol intake    
Never 309 (56.5) 272 (50.0) 1.0
Once a month or less 153 (28.0) 172 (31.6) 0.76 (0.57–1.03)
Daily-weekly 85 (15.5) 100 (18.4) 0.74 (0.51–1.04)
Smoking habits    
Nonsmokersc 415 (75.9) 396 (72.8) 1.0
Ex-smokersd 59 (10.8) 76 (14.0) 0.72 (0.49–1.07)
Current smokerse 73 (13.3) 72 (13.2) 0.95 (0.66–1.38)
  1. aLow: none or primary school; medium: middle school; high: high school, trade school or university. bAdjusted for age. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidencial intervals; FFTP: first full-term pregnancy; WHR: waist-hip ratio; BMI: body mass index. cNonsmokers = Never smokers; dEx-smokers = tobacco consumption stopped from 7.6 ± 4.2 years with a previous average tobacco consumption estimated at 47 pack-years (range, 20–106); e Current smokers = with an average tobacco consumption estimated at 43 pack-years (range, 20–200). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. The characteristics of participants with and without BC were compared by χ2 test for categorical variables.