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Table 5 Age-Adjusted Incidence Rate and Relative Risk of Cancer by Dietary Preference, Leisure-time Physical Activitya, and Smoking Status

From: Dietary preference, physical activity, and cancer risk in men: national health insurance corporation study

Cancer site Total Never/Former Smokers Current Smokers
  Least favorable lifestyle Middle group Optimal lifestyle Least favorable lifestyle Middle group Optimal lifestyle Least favorable lifestyle Middle group Optimal lifestyle
All (n = 624) (n = 8071) (n = 4997) (n = 176) (n = 2746) (n = 1890) (n = 445) (n = 5204) (n = 3042)
Age aIRb 605.2 557.2 504.0 505.9 474.8 433.0 671.3 621.7 567.9
Age aRR (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.85 – 1.00) 0.83
(0.77 – 0.91)
1.00 0.94
(0.81 – 1.09)
0.86
(0.73 – 1.00)
1.00 0.93
(0.84 – 1.02)
0.85
(0.77 – 0.93)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.95
(0.88 – 1.03)
0.87
(0.80 – 0.95)*
1.00 0.95
(0.81 – 1.10)
0.87
(0.75 – 1.02)*
1.00 0.94
(0.85 – 1.03)
0.86
(0.78 – 0.95)*
Head and neck (n = 32) (n = 389) (n = 259) (n = 5) (n = 127) (n = 107) (n = 27) (n = 258) (n = 150)
Age aIRb 31.4 27.3 26.5 14.6 22.6 25.2 41.3 31.1 28.3
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.87
(0.61 – 1.24)
0.84
(0.58 – 1.22)
1.00 1.54
(0.63 – 3.77)
1.72
(0.70 – 4.22)
1.00 0.75
(0.51 – 1.12)
0.69
(0.46 – 1.03)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.90
(0.62 – 1.28)
0.88
(0.61 – 1.27)
1.00 1.57
(0.64 – 3.84)
1.75
(0.71 – 4.29)
1.00 0.76
(0.51 – 1.13)
0.69
(0.46 – 1.05)
Esophagus (n = 15) (n = 181) (n = 94) (n = 4) (n = 34) (n = 24) (n = 11) (n = 147) (n = 70)
Age aIRb 13.0 11.0 8.4 9.7 4.9 4.6 14.9 15.5 11.6
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.84
(0.50 – 1.43)
0.64
(0.37 – 1.11)
1.00 0.50
(0.78 – 1.42)
0.47
(0.16 – 1.36)
1.00 1.04
(0.56 – 1.92)
0.78
(0.41 – 1.47)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.94
(0.55 – 1.59)
0.75
(0.44 – 1.30)
1.00 0.52
(0.19 – 1.48)
0.48
(0.17 – 1.38)
1.00 1.09
(0.59 – 2.02)
0.85
(0.45 – 1.60)
Stomach (n = 160) (n = 2132) (n = 1318) (n = 53) (n = 714) (n = 474) (n = 104) (n = 1385) (n = 830)
Age aIRb 154.6 146.7 132.5 151.0 121.9 107.3 156.1 165.0 154.4
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.95
(0.81 – 1.47)
0.86
(0.73 – 1.50)
1.00 0.81
(0.61 – 1.07)
0.71
(0.54 – 0.94)
1.00 1.06
(0.87 – 1.29)
0.99
(0.81 – 1.21)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.98
(0.83 – 1.15)
0.89
(0.76 – 1.05)*
1.00 0.81
(0.61 – 1.07)
0.72
(0.54 – 0.95)*
1.00 1.06
(0.87 – 1.30)
1.00
(0.81 – 1.23)
Lung (n = 95) (n = 939) (n = 527) (n = 14) (n = 211) (n = 132) (n = 81) (n = 722) (n = 388)
Age aIRb 91.3 63.3 52.1 40.4 36.3 30.1 121.3 84.2 71.1
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.69
(0.56 – 0.86)
0.57
(0.46 – 0.71)
1.00 0.90
(0.52 – 1.54)
0.75
(0.43 – 1.29)
1.00 0.69
(0.55 – 0.87)
0.59
(0.46 – 0.75)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.73
(0.59 – 0.91)
0.63
(0.51 – 0.79)*
1.00 0.91
(0.53 – 1.56)
0.76
(0.44 – 1.32)
1.00 0.69
(0.55 – 0.87)
0.60
(0.47 – 0 76)*
Colorectum (n = 72) (n = 1,030) (n = 716) (n = 28) (n = 443) (n = 327) (n = 44) (n = 573) (n = 378)
Age aIRb 71.5 72.5 73.7 81.2 77.2 75.5 68.3 70.3 72.6
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 1.01
(0.80 – 1.29)
1.03
(0.81 – 1.31)
1.00 0.95
(0.65 – 1.39)
0.93
(0.63 – 1.37)
1.00 1.03
(0.76 – 1.40)
1.06
(0.78 – 1.45)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 1.03
(0.81 – 1.30)
1.03
(0.81 – 1.31)
1.00 0.97
(0.66 – 1.42)
0.94
(0.64 – 1.38)
1.00 1.04
(0.76 – 1.41)
1.07
(0.78 – 1.46)
Liver (n = 108) (n = 1614) (n = 936) (n = 32) (n = 570) (n = 358) (n = 76) (n = 1009) (n = 568)
Age aIRb 96.7 104.5 88.2 86.9 94.2 78.2 104.4 111.4 97.4
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 1.08
(0.89 – 1.31)
0.91
(0.75 – 1.11)
1.00 1.08
(0.76 – 1.55)
0.90
(0.63 – 1.29)
1.00 1.07
(0.85 – 1.35)
0.93
(0.73 – 1.19)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 1.13
(0.93 – 1.37)
0.98
(0.80 – 1.20)
1.00 1.10
(0.77 – 1.56)
0.95
(0.66 – 1.37)
1.00 1.10
(0.87 – 1.39)
0.98
(0.77 – 1.24)
Gallbladder (n = 16) (n = 207) (n = 110) (n = 5) (n = 78) (n = 45) (n = 11) (n = 124) (n = 65)
Age aIRb 16.0 14.7 11.4 14.9 14.0 10.7 17.1 15.1 12.4
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.92
(0.55 – 1.52)
0.71
(0.42 – 1.20)
1.00 0.94
(0.38 – 2.32)
0.72
(0.29 – 1.81)
1.00 0.88
(0.48 – 1.64)
0.73
(0.38 – 1.38)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.95
(0.58 – 1.60)
0.75
(0.44 – 1.27)*
1.00 0.97
(0.39 – 2.39)
0.74
(0.29 – 1.87)
1.00 0.92
(0.50 – 1.71)
0.75
(0.40 – 1.43)
Pancreas (n = 12) (n = 200) (n = 134) (n = 3) (n = 67) (n = 48) (n = 9) (n = 130) (n = 83)
Age aIRb 11.7 13.6 13.4 7.9 10.4 9.9 14.0 15.8 15.9
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 1.17
(0.65 – 2.09)
1.15
(0.64 – 2.07)
1.00 1.32
(0.42 – 4.21)
1.26
(0.39 – 4.04)
1.00 1.13
(0.58 – 2.22)
1.13
(0.57 – 2.26)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 1.18
(0.66 – 2.11)
1.16
(0.64 – 2.10)
1.00 1.30
(0.41 – 4.13)
1.21
(0.38 – 3.89)
1.00 1.11
(0.57 – 2.19)
1.11
(0.56 – 2.22)
Kidney (n = 18) (n = 217) (n = 157) (n = 4) (n = 82) (n = 61) (n = 14) (n = 133) (n = 92)
Age aIRb 17.4 15.1 15.9 11.5 14.2 14.0 21.0 15.9 17.2
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 0.86
(0.53 – 1.40)
0.91
(0.56 – 1.49)
1.00 1.24
(0.45 – 3.38)
1.22
(0.44 – 3.36)
1.00 0.76
(0.44 – 1.32)
0.82
(0.47 – 1.44)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 0.90
(0.56 – 1.46)
0.94
(0.57 – 1.53)
1.00 1.31
(0.48 – 3.57)
1.24
(0.45 – 3.42)
1.00 0.78
(0.45 – 1.36)
0.83
(0.47 – 1.46)
Bladder (n = 16) (n = 248) (n = 149) (n = 3) (n = 66) (n = 58) (n = 13) (n = 176) (n = 91)
Age aIRb 15.8 17.3 15.2 8.6 11.2 13.1 19.9 21.2 17.2
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 1.10
(0.66 – 1.82)
0.96
(0.58 – 1.61)
1.00 1.31
(0.41 – 4.16)
1.53
(0.48 – 4.88)
1.00 1.07
(0.61 – 1.88)
0.87
(0.48 – 1.55)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 1.15
(0.69 – 1.91)
1.02
(0.61 – 1.71)
1.00 1.32
(0.42 – 4.21)
1.56
(0.49 – 5.00)
1.00 1.08
(0.62 – 1.90)
0.86
(0.48 – 1.55)
Prostate (n = 10) (n = 187) (n = 108) (n = 5) (n = 83) (n = 54) (n = 5) (n = 98) (n = 49)
Age aIRb 8.7 11.0 9.4 12.5 11.9 10.4 7.0 10.3 8.2
Age aRR
(95% CI)
1.00 1.27
(0.67 – 2.40)
1.08
(0.57 – 2.07)
1.00 0.96
(0.39 – 2.36)
0.83
(0.33 – 2.08)
1.00 1.49
(0.61 – 3.65)
1.18
(0.47 – 2.97)
Multivariate
(95% CI)c
1.00 1.24
(0.66 – 2.35)
1.07
(0.56 – 2.04)
1.00 0.94
(0.38 – 2.31)
0.82
(0.33 – 2.06)
1.00 1.51
(0.61 – 3.71)
1.20
(0.48 – 3.02)
  1. The combination of dietary preference and leisure-time physical activity (LPA) were categorized as (1) the least favorable lifestyle; low LPA with meat preference, (2) middle group; moderate-high LPA with meat preference or low LPA with vegetable or mixture of vegetables and meat preference, and (3) optimal lifestyle; moderate-high LPA with vegetable or mixture of vegetables and meat preference.
  2. The number in the parenthesis means the number of cancer cases.
  3. Abbreviations: aRR, adjusted relative risk; CI, confidence interval
  4. * P Value for trend < 0.05
  5. a With the combination of frequency and duration with vigorous, sweat-producing LPA, it was categorized as (1) low; ≤ 4 times/week for < 30 min/session or ≤ 1 time/week for ≥ 30 min/session, (2) moderate; 2–4 times/week for ≥ 30 min/session or ≥ 5 times/week for < 30 min/session, and (3) high; ≥ 5 times/week for ≥ 30 min/session
  6. b The rate is per 100,000 person-years, adjusted to the age distribution of the entire study population.
  7. c The multivariate relative risk model using standard Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age, amount of alcohol drinking, body mass index, employment and fasting blood sugar as appropriate.