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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pancreatic cancer with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by Helicobacter pylori serology, smoking status and alcohol consumption

From: A prospective study of Helicobacter pylori in relation to the risk for pancreatic cancer

Factor Status Crude OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)*
H. pylori serology Negative 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Positive 1.32 (0.81–2.16) 1.25 (0.75–2.09)
Smoking Never smoker 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Current smoker 3.24 (1.67–6.30) 3.59 (1.79–7.21)
  Former smoker 2.14 (0.99–4.67) 2.16 (0.97–4.82)
Mm-MAST** category Low 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  Intermediate 1.37 (0.82–2.29) 1.33 (0.77–2.32)
  High 1.84 (0.69–4.92) 1.84 (0.65–5.23)
  Missing 1.58 (0.39–6.43) 1.86 (0.42–8.15)
γ-glutamyle transferase-tertiles (μkat/l) 1 (< 0.35) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  2 (0.35–0.60) 0.95 (0.53–1.71) 0.83 (0.44–1.59)
  3 (> 0.60) 1.27 (0.70–2.27) 1.07 (0.54–2.12)
  1. * Odds ratios for the risk factors H. pylori serology, smoking and Mm-MAST category are adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, H. pylori serology status, smoking status, time from baseline investigation to analysis and alcohol consumption. Mm-MAST is used as surrogate marker for alcohol consumption, no adjustment is done for γ-glutamyle transferase values. Adjusted OR for γ-glutamyle transferase-tertiles are adjusted for the same cofactors except for Mm-MAST category.
  2. ** Mm-MAST, Malmö modification of the brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.