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Table 2 Risk factors of MIBC as calculated by risk estimate analysis.

From: Muscle invasive bladder cancer in Upper Egypt: the shift in risk factors and tumor characteristics

  p-value OR (95%CI)
Positive family history of bladder cancer p < 0.001 13.8 (4–47.7)
Exposure to pesticides p < 0.001 9.4 (5.6–15.8)
Exposure to fertilizers p < 0.001 7.5 (4.4–12.8)
Bladder stones p < 0.001 7.0 (3.5–14.2)
Parents' consanguinity p < 0.001 6.3 (3.9–10.4)
Recurrent cystitis p < 0.001 6.1 (3.4–11.1)
Bilharziasis p < 0.001 5.8 (3.3–10.4)
Smoking p < 0.001 5.3 (3.2–8.7)
  1. OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval.