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Table 3 Adjusteda odds ratios (OR) for esophageal cancer, and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, according to tobacco smoking

From: Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

  No. of controls All esophageal cancer cases Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cases
   Cases ORa 95% CI Cases ORa 95% CI
Smoking Status        
   Never 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   Ever 237 179 2.12 (1.06 – 4.23) 145 1.70 (0.72 – 4.03)
   Never 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   Former-Smoker 117 55 1.61 (0.76 – 3.40) 39 1.08 (0.43 – 2.73)
   Current Smoker 120 124 2.58 (1.26 – 5.28) 106 2.28 (0.95 – 5.51)
Average No. of cigarettes/day        
   Never 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   Former smoker 117 55 1.68 (0.79 – 3.57) 39 1.16 (0.45 – 2.99)
   <15 27 11 1.70 (0.63 – 4.58) 8 1.35 (0.41 – 4.48)
   15–29 58 58 2.45 (1.11 – 5.44) 47 2.05 (0.78 – 5.42)
   ≥ 30 23 51 5.07 (2.06 – 12.47) 48 5.82 (1.96 – 17.23)
   Pipe/Cigars 12 4 1.58 (0.41 – 6.21) 3 1.49 (0.30 – 7.46)
p-value for linear trend     0.002    0.006
Years of cigarette smoking        
   Never 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   <20 39 14 1.78 (0.69 – 4.59) 4 0.54 (0.12 – 2.11)
   20–29 48 32 1.94 (0.81 – 4.63) 26 1.62 (0.57 – 4.65)
   ≥ 30 150 134 2.25 (1.10 – 4.58) 115 2.03 (0.84 – 4.92)
p-value for linear trend     0.030    0.029
Pack-years b        
   Never smoker (0 p-y) 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   Past 117 55 1.67 (0.79 – 3.55) 39 1.15 (0.45 – 2.95)
   <20 38 11 1.30 (0.49 – 3.47) 6 0.69 (0.19 – 2.51)
   20–49 55 59 2.81 (1.27 – 6.19) 48 2.49 (0.96 – 6.51)
   ≥ 50 27 54 3.79 (1.60 – 8.95) 52 3.93 (1.40 – 10.99)
p-value for linear trend     0.005    0.007
Age at starting        
   <15 40 41 1.00   35 1.00  
   15–17 78 61 1.11 (0.56 – 2.21) 49 1.45 (0.65 – 3.23)
   ≥ 18 116 70 0.91 (0.47 – 1.74) 56 1.21 (0.57 – 2.58)
Years since quitting        
   Current Smoker 120 124 1.00   106 1.00  
   <10 50 26 0.55 (0.29 – 1.06) 20 0.44 (0.20 – 0.96)
   ≥ 10 67 29 0.65 (0.35 – 1.21) 19 0.49 (0.23 – 1.06)
Type of tobacco        
   Never 218 23 1.00   15 1.00  
   Blond 71 31 1.19 (0.50 – 2.82) 24 0.80 (0.28 – 2.30)
   Black 150 144 2.50 (1.23 – 5.09) 118 2.05 (0.85 – 4.97)
Inhalation of smoke        
   Never 218 24 1.00   15 1.00  
   Partially 164 93 1.50 (0.74 – 3.07) 77 1.32 (0.54 – 3.25)
   Totally 72 85 2.88 (1.37 – 6.06) 67 2.53 (1.00 – 6.46)
  1. a Adjusted for sex, age, educational level, province, and alcohol drinking (never, past, 1–24 g/d, 25–74 g/d, ≥ 75 g/d), the energy-adjusted intake of fruits and vegetables in tertiles, and energy intake
  2. b Pack-years = the number of packs of 20 cigarettes per day multiplied by the number of years smoking.