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Table 2 Adjusteda odds ratios (OR) for esophageal cancer, and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, according to alcohol consumption

From: Esophageal cancer risk by type of alcohol drinking and smoking: a case-control study in Spain

  No. of controls All esophageal cancer cases Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cases
   Cases ORa 95% CI Cases ORa 95% CI
Alcohol Drinking Status        
   Never< 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   Ever 284 186 2.41 (1.24 – 4.71) 154 5.34 (2.05 – 13.91)
   Never 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   Former drinker 49 38 4.28 (1.92 – 9.56) 31 11.03 (3.73 – 32.62)
   Current drinker 235 148 2.06 (1.04 – 4.08) 123 4.48 (1.69 – 11.83)
Average of pure ethanol (g/day)        
   Never 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   Former drinker 49 38 5.40 (2.43 – 12.00) 31 16.03 (5.34 – 48.07)
   1–24 g/d 147 27 1.16 (0.54 – 2.49) 12 1.71 (0.56 – 5.20)
   25–74 g/d 62 45 2.89 (1.29 – 6.48) 38 8.02 (2.64 – 24.40)
   ≥ 75 g/d 26 75 7.65 (3.16 – 18.49) 72 23.20 (7.19 – 74.90)
p-value for linear trend     <0.00001    <0.00001
Type of drink (g/day)        
   Never 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   Only wine 65 12 1.20 (0.49 – 2.91) 7 1.92 (0.56 – 6.64)
   Only beer 26 8 3.07 (1.06 – 8.90) 6 7.98 (2.13 – 29.92)
   Only wine and/or beer 67 15 1.44 (0.59 – 3.47) 9 2.49 (0.73 – 88.46)
   All types of beverages 126 151 4.39 (2.08 – 9.22) 132 12.15 (4.17 – 34.56)
   Never 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   Former drinker 49 38 5.50 (2.47 – 12.27) 31 16.74 (5.53 – 50.67)
   Wine and/or Beer 1–24 g/d 107 14 1.04 (0.45 – 2.41) 6 1.48 (0.43 – 5.05)
   Wine and/or Beer ≥ 25 g/d 30 13 2.04 (0.76 – 5.46) 11 5.48 (1.52 – 19.71)
   All types 1–24 g/d 40 13 1.53 (0.58 – 4.01) 6 2.47 (0.62 – 9.86)
   All types ≥ 25 g/d 58 108 5.76 (2.59 – 12.83) 100 17.22 (5.68 – 52.21)
All types 25–74 g/d 40 39 3.88 (1.64 – 9.15) 32 10.47 (3.26 – 33.64)
All types ≥ 75 g/d 18 69 10.62 (4.14 – 27.24) 68 35.03 (10.28 – 119.31)
p-value for linear trend     <0.0001    <0.0001
Years of alcohol drinking        
   0 171 16 1.00   6 1.00  
   1–19 16 15 4.06 (1.37 – 12.00) 11 8.21 (2.08 – 32.32)
   20–39 121 92 2.96 (1.42 – 6.14) 76 6.28 (2.27 – 17.35)
   ≥ 40 129 71 1.71 (0.80 – 3.61) 62 3.99 (1.41 – 11.24)
p-value for linear trend     0.316    0.036
Age at starting        
   <18 yr 51 43 1.00   39 1.00  
   18–20 yr 88 50 1.94 (0.88 – 4.27) 40 0.63 (0.29 – 1.37)
   21–29 yr 59 34 1.04 (0.53 – 2.02) 31 0.83 (0.34 – 2.02)
   ≥ 30 yr 72 52 1.71 (0.86 – 3.40) 40 0.91 (0.36 – 2.29)
Years since quitting        
   Current Drinker 235 148 1.00   123 1.00  
   <5 yr 12 16 3.60 (1.34 – 9.69) 14 5.89 (2.01 – 17.25)
   ≥ 5 yr 37 22 1.71 (0.86 – 3.41) 17 1.70 (0.79 – 3.66)
  1. a Adjusted for sex, age, educational level, province and tobacco smoking (never, past, <20, 20–49 and ≥ 50 pack-years), the energy-adjusted intake of fruit and vegetable in tertiles, and energy intake.