DCs treated with VA Qu Spez show an increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-6. The 4-day-old DCs (0.5 × 106) were treated with medium alone (Control) or with 15 ng/ml TNF-α or with 5, 10 and 15 μg/ml of VA Qu Spez for 48 hours. The secretion (pg/ml) of IL-8 (Panel A) and IL-6 (Panel B) in cell free supernatants were analysed by cytokine bead array assay. Data are presented as mean ± SEM from five to six independent donors. Statistical significance (*, p < 0.05) as analysed by Mann-Whitney test is indicated.