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Table 1 Distribution of Asian women according to mammogram (mam) status, by selected characteristics1

From: Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention

Characteristic N (row %) Mam in past 2 yrs, N = 981 N (row %) No mam in past 2 yrs, N = 540 Total (N = 1521)
Asian subgroup    
   Chinese 246 (64) 136 (36) 382
   Japanese 194 (71) 81 (29) 275
   Filipina 178 (66) 91 (34) 269
   Korean 127 (52) 117 (48) 244
   South Asian 79 (63) 46 (37) 125
   Vietnamese 157 (69) 69 (31) 226
  p-value2 =< .0001  
Age at interview    
   41–49 353 (59) 248 (41) 601
   50–64 391 (70) 164 (30) 555
   65+ 237 (65) 128 (35) 365
  p-value = .0002  
English speaking proficiency (Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese) 530 322  
   English not well 294 (59) 204 (41) 498
   English well, very well, only 236 (67) 118 (33) 354
  p-value = .024  
English speaking proficiency (Filipino, Japanese, South Asian) 451 218  
   English well, not well 146 (65) 77 (35) 223
   English very well, only 305 (68) 141 (32) 446
  p-value = .448  
Education (excluding Vietnamese) 824 471  
   High school diploma or less 248 (62) 155 (38) 403
   Some college, vocational school 187 (63) 109 (37) 296
   Bachelor's degree or more 389 (65) 207 (35) 596
  p-value = .477  
Education (only Vietnamese) 157 69  
   High school diploma or less 123 (69) 56 (31) 179
   Some college or more 34 (72) 13 (28) 47
  p-value = .631  
Annual household income adjusted for household size    
   <$10,000 (per household member) 186 (60) 123 (40) 309
   $10,000–$19,999 269 (61) 173 (39) 442
   $20,000–$33,749 261 (69) 118 (31) 379
   $33,750+ 265 (68) 136 (32) 391
  p-value = .018  
Employer type 968 531  
   Unemployed 458 (66) 241 (34) 699
   Private 325 (63) 190 (37) 515
   Federal, state, local 114 (71) 47 (29) 161
   Self-employed, family business 71 (57) 53 (43) 124
  p-value = .094  
Employment hours (per week)    
   Unemployed 458 (65) 243 (35) 701
   1–30 hours 112 (62) 69 (38) 181
   >30 hours 411 (64) 228 (36) 639
  p-value = .682  
Health insurance    
   No 76 (44) 97 (56) 173
   Yes 905 (67) 443 (33) 1348
  p-value =< .0001  
Type of health insurance (among insured) 905 443  
   Public (Medicaid only, Medicare only, Medicare & Medicaid, other public) 192 (60) 127 (40) 319
   Private (employment-based, private, Medicare & private) 713 (69) 316 (31) 1029
  p-value = .003  
Managed care health plan (among insured) 877 427  
   No 291 (65) 160 (35) 451
   Yes 586 (69) 267 (31) 853
  p-value = .127  
Public program eligibility (public housing subsidies, general assistance and relief, food stamps, disability, WIC)    
   No 841 (65) 456 (35) 1297
   Yes 140 (63) 84 (37) 224
  p-value = .499  
Marital status 979 540  
   Married 620 (65) 331 (35) 951
   Widowed, divorced, separate, living with partner 290 (64) 160 (36) 450
   Never married 69 (58) 49 (42) 118
  p-value = .355  
Percent of lifetime lived in U.S.    
   <10% of life in U.S. 32 (40) 49 (60) 81
   10–25% of life in U.S. 138 (61) 89 (39) 227
   >25% of life in U.S. 580 (65) 309 (35) 889
   U.S. born 231 (71) 93 (29) 324
  p-value < .0001  
Citizenship status    
   U.S. born 231 (71) 93 (29) 324
   Naturalized citizen 600 (68) 283 (32) 883
   Non-citizen 150 (48) 164 (52) 314
  p-value < .0001  
Usual source of care 980 539  
   No 56 (38) 90 (62) 146
   Yes 924 (67) 449 (33) 1373
  p-value < .0001  
Went to another country for care    
   No 959 (65) 526 (35) 1485
   Yes 22 (61) 14 (39) 36
  p-value = .667  
Personal history of (non-breast) cancer 979 539  
   No 944 (64) 524 (36) 1468
   Yes 35 (70) 15 (30) 50
  p-value = .408  
Blood relative with cancer 974 535  
   No 633 (62) 380 (38) 1013
   Yes 341 (69) 155 (31) 496
  p-value = .017  
Blood relative with breast cancer    
   No 943 (64) 526 (36) 1469
   Yes 38 (73) 14 (27) 52
  p-value = .188  
Pre-existing health condition (arthritis, asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure)    
   No 466 (62) 287 (38) 753
   Yes 515 (67) 253 (33) 768
  p-value = .035  
Use of other screenings (pap exam and/or colon-rectal exam)    
   No 46 (29) 113 (71) 159
   Yes 935 (69) 427 (31) 1362
  p-value < .0001  
Ever had pap smear to check for cervical cancer    
   No 62 (32) 131 (68) 193
   Yes 919 (69) 409 (31) 1328
  p-value < .0001  
Ever had colon-rectal screening exam    
   No 589 (58) 432 (42) 1021
   Yes 392 (78) 108 (22) 500
  p-value < .0001  
Has women's health issues (has osteoporosis, takes hormone supplements to control menopause, had hysterectomy)    
   No 568 (57) 426 (43) 994
   Yes 413 (78) 114 (22) 527
  p-value < .0001  
  1. 1 Distribution* of Asian women according to mammogram status (mammogram within the past two years), by selected characteristics, CHIS 2001 (N = 1521); relative distributions are not adjusted for CHIS sampling weights.
  2. 2 p-value for chi-square test comparing the distribution among non-users to users.