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Table 4 Effect sizes of intervention group compared to control group on determined variables

From: The efficacy of physiotherapy upon shoulder function following axillary dissection in breast cancer, a randomized controlled study

  Effect sizesa
  T0 vs. T1 T0 vs. T2
  Value (95% CI) Sign (P) Value (95% CI) Sign (P)
Functional impairments (1 – 5) -1.8 (-2.3 – -1.3) <0.001 -0.8 (-1.5 – -0.2) 0.018
VAS for pain (0–10) -2.7 (-3.6 – -1.9) <0.001 -2.5 (-3.5 – -1.6) <0.001
Hand grip strength (Kg) 3.1 (-0.4 – 6.6) 0.081 1.4 (-2.4 – 5.2) 0.452
Anteflexion shoulder (0–180°) 24.9 (9.3 – 40.5) 0.003 19.3 (5.7 – 32.8) 0.007
Abduction shoulder (0–180°) 36.7 (12.2 – 61.2) 0.005 29.7 (7.9 – 51.5) 0.010
DASH (0–100) -13.5 (-24.3 – -2.6) 0.017 -9.0 (-17.2 – -0.8) 0.032
SIP (0–68) -4.0 (-7.7 – -0.3) 0.035 -2.8 (-6.7 – 1.0) 0.142
Volume operated arm (ml) 1.6 (-20.2 – 23.5) 0.880 -0.6 (-20.7 – 19.4) 0.950
  1. a Effect sizes are calculated as differences between groups at T1 or T2 adjusted for the T0 assessment (entered as covariate in the analysis).
  2. VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; DASH, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; SIP, Sickness Impact Profile.