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Table 3 Distribution of methylation levels of cancer-related genes in subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), oncocytoma, and morphologically normal renal tissue (NRT) [(target gene/ACTB) × 1000 expressed as median (interquartile range)]

From: Quantitative promoter methylation analysis of multiple cancer-related genes in renal cell tumors

Gene Clear cell RCC Papillary RCC Chromophobe RCC Oncocytoma p value* NRT
APC 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
ARHI 942.6 (634.7–1746.6) 807.2 (623.3–1322.6) 198.6 (148.7–1575.5) 930.1 (641.5–1654.5) ns 893.5 (574.2–1286.2)
CDH1 3.8 (0.5–12.3) 3.5 (0–19.3) 0 (0-0) 0 (0–1.1) 0.0007 2.3 (0.52–6.72)
CTNNB1 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
SFN 1441.4 (947.3–2592.1) 1048.2 (848.3–1354.5) 1192.4 (687.9–1477.4) 1302.5 (738.6–2591.6) ns 1088.4 (790.2–1497.1)
ARF/p14 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0–0.04)
CDKN2A/p16 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
RASSF1A 71.7 (4.7–265.5) 433.2 (236.4–966.0) 0 (0–2.7) 10.6 (2.2–27.5) 0.0001 59.6 (33.1–88.5)
GSTP1 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
MDR1 25.3 (10.5–58.2) 15.5 (6.0–23.7) 33.1 (2.6–54.9) 33.5 (7.9–117.9) ns 31.6 (16.6–41.9)
MTHFR 556.4 (236.9–965.9) 349.0 (181.6–561.9) 572.8 (340.3–887.0) 667.5 (634.4–1687.9) ns 419.7 (305.2–614.3)
PTGS2 72.9 (34.1–222.5) 17.7 (9.3–43.2) 6.0 (3.9–49.7) 16.2 (5.3–28.9) 0.002 54.6 (34.4–90.8)
TIMP3 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
ESR1 6.9 (0–31.3) 4.4 (2–10.9) 3.8 (0–19.1) 12.9 (7.7–76.5) ns 15.0 (0.9–35.5)
ESR2 0.6 (0–1.9) 0 (0–0.4) 0.3 (0–2.7) 0 (0–0.5) ns 0 (0–0.3)
FHIT 0.7 (0–5.6) 2.6 (0–47.0) 0.9 (0–4.0) 0.4 (0–6.6) ns 2.0 (0–17.7)
MGMT 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
RARβ2 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) 0 (0-0) ns 0 (0-0)
  1. *Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test among the four groups of renal cell tumors; IQR, interquartile range; ns, not significant