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Table 3 Multivariate proportional hazard ratio for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma death in Taiwan from 1985–1994.

From: Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

  Oral and pharyngeal carcinoma death (N = 4106)
Ethnic group Aborigines community (N = 130) Hakka community (N = 215) Hokkien community (N = 3761)
Characteristics HR(95% CI) HR(95% CI) HR(95% CI)
Period of diagnosis (yrs)    
   1985–1989 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1990–1994 1.43(0.93–2.20) 1.55(1.13–2.13)* 1.20(1.12–1.29)*
Gender    
   Females 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Males 0.94(0.62–1.43) 1.87(1.18–2.97)* 1.60(1.42–1.81)*
Diagnostic age (yrs)    
   < = 49 1.00 1.00 1.00
   50–59 1.17(0.71–1.92) 1.12(0.77–1.61) 0.96(0.89–1.04)
   60–69 1.24(0.74–2.08) 1.19(0.83–1.73) 0.99(0.90–1.08)
   > = 70 1.05(0.59–1.87) 2.46(1.62–3.73)* 1.15(1.03–1.28)*
Anatomic site    
   Oropharyngeal 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Lip 1.22(0.33–4.55) 0.52(0.17–1.61) 0.77(0.61–0.98)*
   Tongue 0.94(0.37–2.37) 1.36(0.77–2.41) 1.31(1.14–1.50)*
   Mouth 0.89(0.37–2.15) 1.18(0.67–2.07) 1.26(1.10–1.43)*
   Hypopharyngeal 0.43(0.17–1.11) 0.99(0.51–1.90) 0.98(0.84–1.15)
   Other 0.00-a 0.85(0.11–6.77) 0.70(0.43–1.13)
Morphologic type    
   SCC 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Verrucous carcinoma 0.95(0.38–2.40) 0.46(0.20–1.05) 0.51(0.42–0.62)*
   Other carcinoma 0.63(0.30–1.35) 0.35(0.20–0.62)* 0.54(0.47–0.62)*
Therapy    
   Surgery alone 1.00 1.00 1.00
   RT alone 3.02(1.25–7.28)* 3.03(1.70–5.40)* 2.61(2.26–3.01)*
   CT alone 1.38(0.55–3.46) 4.81(2.93–7.90)* 2.74(2.41–3.12)*
   Surgery + RT 2.01(0.98–4.13) 1.56(0.85–2.84) 1.76(1.55–2.01)*
   Surgery + CT 1.21(0.46–3.13) 2.40(1.30–4.45)* 1.38(1.18–1.61)*
   RT + CT 5.38(2.26–12.83)* 2.97(1.55–5.67)* 3.49(3.02–4.03)*
   Surgery + RT + CT 3.76(1.60–8.83)* 4.59(2.51–8.39)* 2.58(2.20–3.01)*
   ST alone 3.78(1.69–8.43)* 2.55(1.11–5.86)* 3.05(2.53–3.69)*
   Other complex therapy 2.96(1.57–5.59)* 2.46(1.61–3.74)* 2.09(1.89–2.30)*
  1. SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; RT: radiation therapy; CT: chemotherapy; ST: supportive care therapy.
  2. HR: hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval.
  3. a No subjects died from other anatomic site.
  4. *Statistical significance (p < 0.05).
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