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Table 1 Characteristics of breast cancer cases and controls.

From: Reduction in the risk of human breast cancer by selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors

Characteristic a Cases (N = 323) Controls (N = 649)
Age (yrs)   
   <50 21% 22 %
   50–65 55 56
   >65 24 22
   Mean (SEM) 54.2 (0.7) 53.3 (0.4)
Race   
   Caucasian 91 % 89 %
   All Other 9 11
Education   
   < 12 yrs 12 % 12 %
   12 yrs 53 55
   > 12 yrs 31 33
Parity   
   Nulliparous 6 % 4 %
   First Pregnancy <30 yrs 83 89
   First Pregnancy >30 yrs 11 7 (p < 0.05)
Family History   
   Positive 29 % 16 %
   Negative 71 84 (p < 0.01)
Body Mass   
   BMI < 22 23 % 21 %
   BMI 22–28 35 39
   BMI > 28 42 40
   Mean (SEM) 27.5 (0.9) 27.1 (0.7)
Menopausal Status   
   Premenopausal 41 % 47 %
   Postmenopausal 59 53 (p < 0.05)
   Postmenopausal ERT 38 31 (p < 0.05)
Smoking   
   Never smoker 45 % 40 %
   Ex-smoker 38 40
   Current smoker 27 20 (p < 0.02)
Alcohol Intake   
   None 47 % 45 %
   1–2 drinks per week 36 35
   > 2 drinks per week 17 20
  1. aFamily History: either breast or ovarian cancer among first or second degree female relatives; ERT = Estrogen Replacement Therapy for two or more years; Body Mass Index = weight (kg)/ht2(m).