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Table 2 Relative risk of incidence and mortalitya related to solar UV-B exposure, northern versus southern United States boundaryb, non-Hispanic whites (95% CI in parentheses): Cancer sites with strongest evidence of an inverse association with solar UV-B exposure.

From: Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

  Incidence Mortality
Cancer site Males Females Males Females
Esophagus (males) 1.27 (1.21–1.34)   1.36 (1.31–1.41)  
Stomach 1.42 (1.35–1.49) 1.27 (1.19–1.36) 1.31 (1.26–1.36) 1.26 (1.21–1.32)
Colon 1.11 (1.08–1.13) 1.14 (1.11–1.16) 1.27 (1.24–1.30) 1.24 (1.22–1.27)
Rectum 1.27 (1.23–1.32) 1.14 (1.09–1.18) 1.53 (1.45–1.60) 1.37 (1.30–1.44)
Gallbladder (females)   1.86 (1.66–2.09)   1.98 (1.82–2.16)
Other biliary 1.20 (1.07–1.35) 1.21 (1.07–1.36) 1.56 (1.40–1.75) 1.58 (1.43–1.76)
Uterus   1.49 (1.45–1.53)   1.52 (1.46–1.58)
Vulva   1.18 (1.09–1.29)   1.93 (1.72–2.17)
Prostate 1.20 (1.19–1.22)   1.17 (1.15–1.19)  
Bladder 1.13 (1.10–1.16) 1.15 (1.11–1.20) 1.24 (1.20–1.28) 1.21 (1.15–1.27)
Hodgkin lymphoma 1.16 (1.04–1.29) 1.19 (1.05–1.34) 1.14 (1.00–1.30) 1.25 (1.09–1.43)
Myeloma 1.19 (1.12–1.27) 1.22 (1.14–1.31) 1.16 (1.11–1.22) 1.16 (1.11–1.21)
  1. aAdjusted for the variables listed in Table 1 and excluding high-migration counties. Incidence includes states and counties shown in Figure 1 for the period 1998–2002 ; mortality includes entire United States except Alaska and Hawaii for the period 1993–2002.
  2. b Relative risk of receiving annual average of 650 kJ/m2 of erythemally-weighted ultraviolet exposure (a value typical of northern Maine, Minnesota or Washington) versus annual average of 1540 kJ/m2 (a value typical of southern Florida, Texas, or Arizona).