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Table 2 Effects of various prognostic factors on survival: Cox Regression analysis of effects of tumor grade, positive hormonal receptors, tumor size and age on survival for non-metastatic patients. Patients with grade III had a significant higher risk of death (p 0.039) as compared to the reference grade I. Hormone receptor negativity conveys a significantly higher risk for death (p value 0.003). Larger tumor sizes and lymph node positivity correlated with significantly higher risks for death. Patients below 35 have the highest risk of death as compared to patients age 35–50 and those above 50 years. Other variables including adjuvant chemoradiation and hormonal therapy were not found to be significant.

From: Effects of young age at presentation on survival in breast cancer

Variable P value Hazard Ratio 95% CI for hazard ratio
Grade I 0.097 1.000  
Grade II 0.113 1.813 0.87 – 3.78
Grade III 0.039 2.161 1.04 – 4.49
Negative hormonal receptors 0.003 1.654 1.18 – 2.32
Tumor size < 2 cm 0.002 1.000  
Tumor size 2 cm – 5 cm 0.020 2.003 1.12 – 3.59
Tumor size >5 cm 0.001 3.099 1.63 – 5.89
Presence of positive Lymph Nodes <0.0001 2.370 1.54 – 3.64
Age less than 35 0.015 1.000  
Age between 35–49 0.005 0.476 0.28 – 0.80
Age 50 and above 0.086 0.651 0.40 – 1.06