Selection and enrichment for chemokinetic H460 cancer cells. (A) Boyden chamber assays were used with 1.5 % serum present in both upper and lower chambers. Cells that migrated across the filter was collected by trypsinization and cultured to expand their numbers. These cells were further enriched for chemokinetic KINE cells in similar experiments for a total of seven times with intermittent periods of 48 h to allow growth in full serum conditions. (B) Migration assays were conducted under chemotactic conditions in the presence of 1.5% fetal bovine serum in the lower chamber only (positive gradient), and under chemokinetic conditions in the presence of 1.5% serum in both upper and lower chambers (uniform gradient). The KINE population of cells demonstrated greater chemokinetic activity in the absence of a serum gradient compared to CON cells (CON). There was no difference in chemotaxis levels between the two populations (-) = Uniform serum gradient; (+) = Positive serum gradient. Data represent the mean ± S.D. of triplicate determinations.