Effects of125I seed irradiation on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. (A) The inhibition of cell invasion was measured by transwell and Boyden chamber assays. The number of U251 (left panel) and U87 (right panel) cells was counted to calculate the average number of migrated cells. (B) A wound-healing assay of GBM cells was performed followed by irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy, and the U251 cells were presented. The total distance migrated by wounded cells is expressed as a percentage of the initial distance. (C) Morphological changes of U251 (upper panel) and U87 (lower panel) cells treated by irradiation. (D) The expressions of ZEB1, Snail, and vimentin in U251 cells treated with 125I seeds (upper panel) and X-ray (lower panel) were measured by western blotting. (E) ZEB1 of U251 cells were measured by immunofluorescent assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD (n =3). Bars with different characters are statistically different at the P < 0.05 level.