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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics included in primary analysis

From: Serum glucose and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis

Author/Year Country Sex Cancer (s) included Timing of measurement glucose Method for glucose assessment Study type Cases Age range Adjusted for Main finding
Yun et al. 2012 [77] Korea Male Prostate Fasting Hitachi 7600 automatic chemical analyser using hexokinase method Case control# 166 66.4 (mean) Age, BMI OR for 2nd and 3rd tertile compared to 1st tertile: 1.63 (95% CI: 0.92-2.88) and 1.70 (95% CI: 0.91-3.18)
Albanes et al. 2009 [78] Finland Male Prostate Fasting Hitachi 912 Chemistry Analyzer using the hexokinase reagent Case cohort 100 50-69 Age, BMI OR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.33 (95% CI: 0.72-2.48), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.46-1.86), and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.76-2.68)
Chung et al. 2006 [79] Korea Both Colorectal Fasting Enzymatic colorimetric test Case control# 105 35-75 Age, sex, BMI, triglycerides, cholesterol OR for 2nd and 3rd tertile compared to 1st tertile: 2.0 (95% CI: 0.9-4.4) and 3.0 (95% CI: 0.9-9.8)
Jee et al. 2005 Male [5] Korea Male All Cancers Fasting Not specified Cohort 37759 45.3 (mean) Age, age squared, amount of smoking, alcohol use HR for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile compared to 1st quintile: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99-1.04), 1.13 (95% CI: 1.09-1.17), 1.16 (95% CI: 1.08-1.24), and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.16-1.27)
Jee et al. 2005 Female [5] Korea Female All Cancers Fasting Not specified Cohort 16074 49.6 (mean) Age, age squared, amount of smoking, alcohol use HR for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile compared to 1st quintile: 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99-1.06), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96-1.10), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.93-1.13), and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)
Hsing et al. 2003 [80] China Male Prostate Fasting Radioimmunoassay with sensitivity limit of 0.5 ng/mL Case control* 128 N/S Age, total calories, BMI OR for 2nd and 3rd tertile compared to 1st quartile: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.46-1.44), and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.01-2.80)
Wulaningsih et al. 2013 [81] Sweden Both All Cancers Non specified Enzymatically with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase method Cohort 1021 20> Age, gender, socioeconomic status, fasting,co-morbidities HR: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.14) per standardized log of glucose
Cust et al. 2007 [82] Western Europe Female Endometrial Non specified Enzymatic colorimetric test Case control* 284 59.9 (mean) Study centre, menopausal status, age, time of day of blood collection, fasting status, phase of menstrual cycle (pre menopausal) OR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.58-1.74), 1.59 (95% CI: 0.89-2.83), and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.89-2.95)
Limburg et al. 2006 [83] Finland Male Colorectal Fasting Hitachi 912 Chemistry Analyzer using the hexokinase reagent Case cohort 134 50-69 Smoking pack years, BMI, protein intake, fat intake, fibre intake, alcohol consumption, caloric intake, history of DM, occupational physical activity HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.19 (95% CI: 0.58-2.43), 1.95 (95% CI: 0.97-3.91), and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.78-3.49)
Stolzenberg-Solomon et al. 2005 [84] Finland Male Pancreatic Fasting Assay performed on a chemical analyser Case cohort 169 52-69 Age, years of smoking and BMI HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.15 (95% CI: 0.66-2.02), 1.49 (95% CI: 0.86-2.59), and 1.69 (95% CI: 0.97-2.94)
Yamada 1998 et al. [85] Japan Both Colorectal Fasting Enzymatically using commercially available kits Case control* 129 34-73 Age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption OR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6-1.7), 0.7 (95% CI: 0.3-1.5), and 2.0 (0.9-4.4)
Schoen et al. 1999 [86] USA Both Colorectal Fasting   Cohort 102 65 > Age, sex, physical activity  
Zhang et al. 2010 [87] China Female Endometrial Fasting Abbott Aeroset TM fully Automatic Biochemical Analyzer Case control# 942 N/A Menopausal status, BMI OR: 4.34 (95% CI: 3.48-5.42) for high versus low serum glucose levels
Gunter et al. 2009 [88] USA Female Breast Fasting Assay with sensitivity of 0.5 mg/dL Case cohort 835 50-79 Age, race, alcohol consumption, smoking, FHx breast cancer, parity,age at menarche, age at first childs birth,use of OCP, NSAIDs, HRT, educational attainment, endogenous estrodiol levels, BMI, physical activity HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quantile compared to 1st quantile: 1.14 (95% CI: 0.82-1.59), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.70-1.38), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.65-1.29)
Sieri et al. 2012 [89] Italy Female Breast Fasting Enzymatic UV test using a fully automated system with sensitivity of 0.04 mmol/L Case control* 356 35-69 Age, education, age at first birth, age at menarche, parity, FHx breast cancer, OCP, breastfeeding, alcohol intake, smoking OR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.84-1.66), 1.29 (95% CI: 0.89-1.86), and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.14-2.32)
Gunter et al. 2008 [44] USA Female Colorectal Fasting Assay with sensitivity of 0.5 mg/dL Case cohort 438 50-79 Age HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quantile compared to 1st quantile: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.66-1.34), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63-1.30), and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.83-1.63)
Van Hemelrijck et al. 2011 [90] Sweden Both Renal Mixed Enzymatically with a glucose-oxidaseperoxidase method Cohort 958 55.4 (mean) Age, gender, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting status, SES HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.77-1.21), 1.09 (95% CI: 0.88-1.35), and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.97-1.46)
Van Hemelrijck et al. 2011 [91] Sweden Male Prostate Mixed Enzymatically with a glucose-oxidaseperoxidase method Cohort 5112 20-80 Fasting status,triglyceride and total cholesterol quartile , SES, time btw measurement and cohort entry HR for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartile compared to 1st quartile: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.01), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85-1.01), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.94)
Chao et al. 2011 [92] China Male Liver Fasting Automatic dry-chemical analyzer Case cohort 124 30-65 Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, FHx of HCC, HBV viral load, HCV genotype ,HbeAg status, BCP double mutations HR for 2nd and 3rd tertile compared to 1st tertile: 1.40 (95% CI: 0.80-2.45) and 2.37 (95% CI: 1.12-5.04)
Stocks et al. 2009 [18] Western Europe Male All Cancers Mixed Mixture of non-enzymatic, serum/enzymatic, and plasma/enzymatic Cohort 18621 44.7 (mean) Age, BMI, smoking status HR for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile compared to 1st quintile: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.90-1.25), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93-1.29), 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.37), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.00-1.37)
Stocks et al. 2009 [18] Western Europe Female All Cancers Mixed Cohort 11664 45 (mean) Age, BMI, smoking status HR for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile compared to 1st quintile: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.70-1.07), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.73-1.10), 1.18 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42), and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.07-1.59)
  1. *Nested case–control studies; #Hospital-based case–control studies.