Anti-CD40 therapy boosts the survival benefit of combined tumor debulking surgery and local IMQ therapy. BALB/c mice bearing AB1-HA tumors were left untreated or partially (75%) surgically debulked (dotted line) of tumor, then treated with immunotherapy (IMQ; 50 μg i.t., q1dx6; shaded box) and α-CD40 antibody (FGK45; 100 μg i.p. q2dx3, starting one day after surgery and IMQ treatment; arrows). A. Survival curves of treatment groups as indicated. Number of survivors/total number of animals in brackets. ****, p < 0.0001, comparing (debulk + IMQ) and (debulk + IMQ + α-CD40) to debulk only; log-rank test B. Tumor growth curves of treatment groups as indicated.