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Table 3 Effects of psychological interventions on depression and anxiety in adult with cancer: subgroup analyses

From: The effects of psychological interventions on depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

Subgroup No. of studies No. of subjects SMD 95% CI Q I2(%) Pa
Depression        
Caner typeb        <0.001
Mixed cancer 60 6506 1.113 0.966-1.260 440.61*** 86.6  
Lung cancer 8 592 1.481 0.811-2.151 90.26*** 92.2  
Head/neck cancer 8 734 1.403 1.150-1.167 16.50* 57.6  
Gynecological cancer 19 1592 1.268 1.015-1.520 94.81*** 81.0  
Breast cancer 15 1114 1.106 0.830-1.382 63.82*** 78.1  
Digestive tract cancer 9 851 1.283 0.928-1.638 40.26*** 80.1  
Cancer stage        0.502
Advanced 21 1810 1.220 0.927-1.513 160.64*** 87.5  
Early 8 596 1.401 0.821-1.980 70.28*** 90.0  
Patients’ selection        0.004
Nonselective 103 10310 1.170 1.058-1.282 693.41*** 85.3  
Selective 19 1261 1.368 1.095-1.642 85.42*** 78.9  
Intervention format        0.202
Individual 25 2103 1.256 1.015-1.497 151.98*** 84.2  
Other formats 79 7811 1.167 1.043-1.291 490.91*** 84.1  
Appropriate randomization        0.923
No 19 1788 1.161 0.920-1.401 98.77*** 81.8  
Yes 27 2572 1.145 0.990-1.300 152.60*** 83.0  
Questionnaires        1.000
SDS 104 10134 1.189 1.080-1.298 646.84*** 84.1  
HAMD 15 1104 1.442 1.050-1.834 114.76*** 87.8  
Timing of assessmentc        0.113
≤1 week 8 759 1.180 0.698-1.662 63.77*** 89.0  
2 weeks-4 weeks 22 2599 1.150 0.934-1.366 134.10*** 84.3  
6 weeks-8 weeks 19 1644 1.226 0.940-1.512 124.72*** 85.6  
>8 weeks 9 765 1.323 0.922-1.724 49.61*** 83.9  
Anxiety        
Caner typeb        0.020
Mixed cancer 58 6563 1.242 1.075-1.409 538.86*** 89.4  
Lung cancer 9 676 1.588 0.994-2.182 90.75*** 91.2  
Head/neck cancer 7 645 1.468 0.943-1.992 51.74*** 88.4  
Gynecological cancer 22 1740 1.385 1.139-1.630 110.22*** 80.9  
Breast cancer 20 1622 1.153 0.857-1.448 141.59*** 86.6  
Digestive tract cancer 11 1020 1.371 1.024-1.718 58.7*** 83.0  
Cancer stage        0.777
Advanced 22 2175 1.178 0.923-1.434 154.64*** 86.4  
Early 7 512 1.271 0.687-1.855 54.27*** 88.9  
Patients’ selection        0.114
Nonselective 111 11241 1.322 1.201-1.444 932.67*** 88.2  
Selective 20 1327 1.152 0.906-1.399 81.57*** 76.7  
Intervention format        <0.001
Individual 28 2287 1.575 1.266-1.884 277.89*** 90.3  
Other formats 81 8285 1.161 1.045-1.276 464.52*** 82.8  
Appropriate randomization        0.458
No 21 2018 1.245 0.955-1.535 172.30*** 88.4  
Yes 26 2508 1.383 1.140-1.627 187.05*** 86.6  
Questionnaires        <0.001
SAS 113 10918 1.276 1.163-1.390 810.72*** 86.2  
HAMA 9 624 1.295 0.856-1.733 48.06*** 83.4  
STAI 4 546 1.800 0.717-2.884 83.95*** 96.4  
SAI 4 420 1.639 0.916-2.362 30.86*** 90.3  
Timing of assessmentc        0.246
≤1 week 10 1211 1.224 0.881-1.566 64.58*** 86.1  
2 weeks-4 weeks 24 2519 1.207 0.986-1.427 145.26*** 84.2  
6 weeks-8 weeks 14 1294 1.283 0.920-1.646 114.14*** 88.6  
>8 weeks 8 658 1.021 0.801-1.241 12.10 42.2  
  1. Abbreviations: SDS Self-rating Depression Scale, SAS Self-rating Anxiety Scale, HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAMA Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, SAI State Anxiety Inventory.
  2. *p < 0.05.
  3. ***p < 0.001.
  4. aP of comparison between these subgroups [30], which is akin to analysis of variance. We partition the total variance into variance within groups and variance between groups, and then test these various components of variance for statistical significance, with the last (variance between groups) addressing the hypothesis that effect size differs as function of group membership.
  5. bDue to a few of studies (the number is less than or equal to 2) separately reporting the effect size for depression and anxiety in patients with urinary cancer, bone metastatic cancer, and blood cancer, the subgroup comparison of depression and anxiety in these cancer types were not included.
  6. cTiming of assessment was aimed at the specified time range (e.g., days, weeks, months and years) post-treatment(e.g., surgery and chemotherapy) or post-intervention.